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  Background

The new ways of looking at physics came in handy in 1947. Following in the footsteps of their predecessors, William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain made their breakthrough discovery of the transistor effect by constructing the first crude transistor. A vital part of this invention was the semiconductor and the theory behind it. In 1956 the trio got the Nobel Prize in Physics for:

 

 
      


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