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Frequently Asked Questions

Nobel Laureates


Can I use a photo of a Nobel Laureate?

Has the Nobel Prize been given to more than one member of the same family?

Where can I find the Nobel Laureates' key papers?

Where can I find information on a certain Nobel Laureate?

Who is the oldest ever to receive a Nobel Prize?

What is a Nobel Laureate?

How many Laureates have been awarded the Nobel Prize?

How many Nobel Prizes have involved research on the brain?

Are there any biographies of the Nobel Laureates?

Could you give me the mailing address, e-mail address or fax number of a Nobel Laureate?

Where can I find a list of all Nobel Laureates?

Which person or organization has received the Nobel Prize more than once?

Where can I find a list of Nobel Laureates' birthdays?

Who is the only person to have been awarded two unshared Nobel Prizes?

Who is the youngest ever to receive a Nobel Prize?

Why do you use the word Nobel Laureate and not Nobel Prize Winner?

Can someone affiliated with an organization (like the EU or the IPCC) which was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize claim to have received the honor?

Do you have a list of women Nobel Laureates?

Where can I find a list of Nobel Laureates per country/nationality?

Has any Nobel Laureate been awarded three Nobel Prizes, in both chemistry, physics and medicine?

What do the Nobel Laureates receive?


Can I use a photo of a Nobel Laureate?

For uses of photos, other than those of a Nobel Laureate, permission from the Nobel Foundation or Nobel Media AB, and in certain cases, from the photographer, is required.

To apply for a permit for a photo with © The Nobel Foundation, contact the Nobel Foundation
If permission is granted, "© The Nobel Foundation" must be indicated.

To apply for a permit for a photo with © Nobel Media AB, e-mail archives@nobelmedia.se.
If permission is granted, "© Nobel Media AB" must be indicated.

The Nobel Foundation can unfortunately not grant permissions to use portrait photos of the Nobel Laureates of 1901–2006 due to copyright restrictions. We refer you to a photo agency such as Sciencephoto.com, Scanpix, Reuters, Associated Press, Getty Images or Agence France Presse to make your enquiry for other photos. Where applicable, the university or institution to which the Laureates were affiliated at the time of the award may be of assistance in providing photos. Please find information regarding such affiliations in the biographical information of each Nobel Laureate.

Starting in 2007, most of the official Nobel portraits on Nobelprize.org are taken in Stockholm, with full copyright held by the Nobel Foundation. Please contact the Nobel Foundation if you wish to inquire about editorial use of these photos.


Has the Nobel Prize been given to more than one member of the same family?

Father and son:
William Bragg
 – Lawrence Bragg
Niels Bohr
 – Aage N. Bohr
Hans von Euler-Chelpin
 – Ulf von Euler
Arthur Kornberg – Roger D. Kornberg
Manne Siegbahn – Kai M. Siegbahn
J. J. Thomson
 – George Paget Thomson

Father and daughter:
Pierre Curie
 – Irène Joliot-Curie

Mother and daughter:
Marie Curie
 – Irène Joliot-Curie

Married couples:
Marie Curie
 – Pierre Curie
Irène Joliot-Curie
 – Frédéric Joliot
Gerty Cori
 – Carl Cori


Where can I find the Nobel Laureates' key papers?

We do not have information of the Nobel Laureates' key papers. You have to ask the prize awarding institution in question.


Where can I find information on a certain Nobel Laureate?

If you know the name of the Nobel Laureate, type the last name of the Nobel Laureate in the SEARCH field at the top and click on the arrow. Then, you will find a web page with links to information about the Nobel Laureate.


Who is the oldest ever to receive a Nobel Prize?

Leonid Hurwicz was 90 years old when he was awarded the Prize in Economic Sciences in 2007, and therefore the oldest Laureate ever.

See the list of the oldest Nobel Laureates.


What is a Nobel Laureate?

A Laureate is a person honored for high achievement in a particular field. A Nobel Laureate is someone who is awarded the Nobel Prize.

The word "Laureate" refers to being signified by the laurel wreath. In Greek mythology, the god Apollo is represented wearing a laurel wreath on his head, a circular crown made of branches and leaves of the bay laurel (In Latin: Laurus nobilis). In ancient Greek laurel wreaths were awarded tovictors as a sign of honour - both in athletic competitions and in poetic meets.


How many Laureates have been awarded the Nobel Prize?

From 1901 to 2011, a total of 853 Nobel Laureates have been awarded the Nobel Prize, comprising 830 Nobel Laureates and 23 organizations. Below is a breakdown of Nobel Laureates in each Prize category:

 

CategoryNumber of Nobel Laureates
Physics192
Chemistry161
Physiology or Medicine199
Literature108
Peace101
 23 organizations
Economic Sciences69
  
Total853

 

Two Nobel Laureates were honoured in different Prize categories — Marie Curie was awarded the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics and the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, and Linus Pauling was awarded the 1954 Nobel Prize in Chemistry and the 1962 Nobel Peace Prize. Four other Nobel Laureates, two individuals and two organizations, received the Nobel Prize more than once in the same category. This makes a total of 826 individuals and 20 unique organizations who have received the Nobel Prize. See the following question for more details.


How many Nobel Prizes have involved research on the brain?

You can search in the Fields list for Medicine Laureates. It is based on the prize motivations. Medicine Laureates: Fields


Are there any biographies of the Nobel Laureates?

All Nobel Laureates are presented with a biography, autobiography or a CV in the Nobel Laureates section of each Nobel Prize category. See, for example, Alan G. MacDiarmid – Autobiography

The autobiographies and biographies were written at the time of the award, either by the Nobel Laureate herself/himself or by an editor, and published in the annually year book series Les Prix Nobel. They were later republished in the book series Nobel Lectures, sometimes updated by an editor. The Nobel Laureates themselves can update their material with an addendum.


Could you give me the mailing address, e-mail address or fax number of a Nobel Laureate?

The Nobel Foundation does not disclose addresses to Nobel Laureates out of courtesy. Please contact the institution or university to which the Nobel Laureate was affiliated at the time of the award.


Where can I find a list of all Nobel Laureates?

Here you can find different listings of the Nobel Laureates:

List of All Nobel Prizes and Nobel Laureate
List of Nobel Prize awarded women
List of Nobel Prize awarded organizations 
Nobel Laureates in Physics 
Nobel Laureates in Chemistry 
Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine 
Nobel Laureates in Literature 
Nobel Peace Prize Laureates 
Laureates in Economic Sciences 
List of Nobel Laureates and Research Affiliations


Which person or organization has received the Nobel Prize more than once?

Marie Curie received the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics, and the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry;
John Bardeen received the 1956 and the 1972 Nobel Prize in Physics;
Frederick Sanger received the 1958 and the 1980 Nobel Prize in Chemistry;
Comité International de la Croix Rouge received the 19171944 and 1963 Nobel Peace Prize;
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees received the 1954 and the 1981 Nobel Peace Prize;
Linus Pauling received the 1954 Nobel Prize in Chemistry and the 1962 Nobel Peace Prize.


Where can I find a list of Nobel Laureates' birthdays?

Here you can search for the Nobel Laureates' birthdays.


Who is the only person to have been awarded two unshared Nobel Prizes?

Linus Pauling is the only person to have been awarded two unshared Nobel Prizes. He was awarded the 1954 Nobel Prize in Chemistry and the 1962 Nobel Peace Prize.


Who is the youngest ever to receive a Nobel Prize?

The youngest Nobel Laureate was Lawrence Bragg, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics together with his father in 1915. He is also the youngest Nobel Laureate in any Nobel Prize category.

See the list of young Nobel Laureates.


Why do you use the word Nobel Laureate and not Nobel Prize Winner?

The awarding of the Nobel Prizes is not a competition or lottery, and therefore there are no winners or losers. Nobel Laureates receive the Nobel Prize in recognition of their achievements in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, or peace.


Can someone affiliated with an organization (like the EU or the IPCC) which was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize claim to have received the honor?

Individual persons connected to or working for a Nobel Prize awarded organization can not in any way describe him or herself personally as a Nobel Laureate.


Do you have a list of women Nobel Laureates?

Yes, see the list of Nobel Prize Awarded Women


Where can I find a list of Nobel Laureates per country/nationality?

Nobelprize.org doesn't provide such a list. You can use the search function Create a list, and search for Nobel Laureates' countries of birth.


Has any Nobel Laureate been awarded three Nobel Prizes, in both chemistry, physics and medicine?

No, no Nobel Laureate has been awarded a Nobel Prize in both Chemistry, Physics and Physiology or medicine so far.


What do the Nobel Laureates receive?

Every Nobel Laureate receive a Nobel Diploma, a Nobel Medal and a prize amount.


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