Riccardo Giacconi held his Nobel Lecture December 8, 2002, at Aula Magna, Stockholm University. He was presented by Professor Mats Jonson, Chairman of the Nobel Committee for Physics. Summary: Instruments attached to rockets and satellites fired into space have explored the X-ray universe since 1950. What was once an unknown background of X-ray emission turned out to contain millions of X-ray sources, both galactic and extra-galactic. Thanks to the development of increasingly sophisticated instruments, the sensitivity to detect X-ray sources has improved 1,000 million times and the resolution has improved significantly over the last 50 years. Among the long list of observations and discoveries achieved through X-ray astronomy are binary stars and the first evidence for the existence of black holes.
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The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002 Lecture (pdf)