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Nobel Centennial Symposia, 2001

Condensation and Coherence in Condensed Systems
2001, NCS 2001-1)
Tord Claeson, et al.
December 4-7
Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg

 

Coherence, condensation, phase transitions are central concepts in physics. Several of the recent Nobel Prizes in Physics have been given to pioneers of these fields. Systems can condense to condensates where particles act coherently, that is in exactly the same way. Photons in a laser is a well known example. Another example is the recent experimental realization of a Bose Einstein condensate (BEC) in dilute gases where the wave functions of atoms overlap and form a coherent state at low temperature, where all condensed atoms move together. BEC's are similar to superfluid and superconducting systems. Related phenomena occur in these condensates. For example, vortices of different kinds appear under rotation in BEC and superfluid 3He and 4He and correspond to quantized fluxons in superconductors under magnetic fields. Macroscopic quantum phenomena, another token of coherence, are typical of superconductors and occur also in the superfluids, including BEC. Coherence is of utmost importance in so called quantum computers, a new concept based upon the probability of a two state system to be in one or the other of the states and where a number of operations have to be performed within a decoherence time.

A Nobel Symposium provides an excellent opportunity to bring together a group of outstanding scientists for a stimulating exchange of ideas and results. The Nobel symposia are small meetings and participation is by invitation only, typically 20-40 participants. In 2001, the Nobel Foundation celebrated the 100th anniversary of the first Nobel prize and all previous Nobel laureates were invited to attend the Nobel ceremonies in Stockholm. This gave an excellent opportunity for arranging jubilee symposia with topics that would attract several of the laureates. Our chosen subject of Condensation and Coherence in Condensed Systems (CoCoCo) attracted sixteen Nobel Laureates and another thirty-five leading scientists who met in Göteborg during four days before leaving for the festivities in Stockholm. The program had to be concentrated to certain aspects and we apologize to all prominent scientists in the field that could not be invited due to space limits.

Our idea was to bring scientists together from several related sub-disciplines: atomic physics, quantum optics, condensed matter physics, for cross breeding of ideas, concepts and experience. Subjects like phase transitions in strongly coupled systems, Bose-Einstein condensation in weakly coupled systems, macroscopic quantum phenomena, coherence in mesoscopic structures, and quantum information were intensively discussed from different points of view. Coherence phenomena in condensed systems were emphasized. A special session was devoted to the emerging field of quantum computing with experimental and theoretical results reported for different types of qu-bits. The 2001 Nobel Prize to Eric Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle, and Carl Wieman, "for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates" gave an extra flavor to the theme of the Centennial Symposium.

The Symposium was sponsored by the Nobel Foundation through its Nobel Symposium Committee. Lectures were given at Ågrenska Villan, a former merchant mansion that was donated to the Göteborg University, at the Microtechnology Center of Chalmers, and at Universeum, the new science center in Göteborg. Several of the sessions were opened to invited scientists or to a broader audience, which could enjoy reviews of central topics. High school students and His Majesty the King of Sweden had the possibility to meet and interview many of the laureates during the visit at Universeum. Receptions were sponsored by the City of Göteborg and Chalmers University of Technology and gave participants opportunities to meet local scientists, students, and industrialists as well as to enjoy music and a guided tour of arts. The symposium was organized by Sune Svanberg, Mats Jonson, and Tord Claeson. Valuable hints were given by Anders Bárány, the secretary of the Nobel Committee for Physics. Many of the participants gave valuable comments regarding the planning of the CoCoCo symposium. Special thanks are due to our "sounding board": Anthony Leggett, Hans Mooij, Doug Osheroff, Bill Phillips, and Stig Stenholm. Per Delsing had the responsibility of editing the Proceedings. Our secretary, Ann-Marie Frykestig, and technician, Staffan Pehrson, did outstanding jobs organizing practical matters. Several of the members of our local university community helped with odds and ends. Mariana Ravneva Ivanova and Madeline Claeson directed an appreciated companions program.

The Proceedings contain most of the material presented at the Symposium. A few contributions that summarized results published elsewhere are exempted. We hope that these Proceedings will convey to the reader some of the excitement felt by the participants during the Symposium. We also want to express our thanks to sponsors and contributors to this successful scientific event.

 

Program
(Click on the links to read the presentations in pdf-format.)

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December 4
Session 1
Mats Jonson, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden (chairman)
Decoherence in mesoscopic systems
Richard A. Webb (University of Maryland, USA)
Boris Altshuler (Princeton University and NEC, USA)
Friedel oscillations of interacting fermions and zero bias anomalies
Alexander Andreev (Kapitza Institute, Moscow)
Quantum coherence between states with even and odd numbers of electrons
Philip W. Anderson (Princeton University, USA)
Superconductivity in high Tc cuprates: the cause is no longer a mystery
Discussion (Mats Jonson, discussion leader)
 
Session 2
Mikko Paalanen, Technical University of Helsinki, Finland (chairman)
Robert Shekhter (Götenburg University, Sweden)
Nanoelectromechanics of Coulomb blockade nanostructures 
Poul Erik Lindelof (University of Copenhagen, Denmark)
Electron spin in single wall carbon nanotubes  
Matti Krusius (Technical University of Helsinki, Finland)
Quantized vorticity in 3He superfluids
Alan J. Heeger (University of California Santa Barbara, USA)
The critical regime of the metal-insulator transition in conducting polymeres: experimental studies 
Extended discussions (Douglas D. Osheroff, Stanford University, discussion leader)
 
December 5 (open to the general public)
Mini-symposium on Bose-Einstein condensed gases
Jan-Erik Sundgren, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden (chairman)
Carl E. Wieman (JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA)
Bose-Einstein condensation with adjustable interactions
Eric A. Cornell (JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA)
Experiments in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates
Wolfgang Ketterle (MIT, USA)
Superfluidity and coherence in Bose-Einstein condensates
 
Session 3 (participants and invited)
Asle Sudbø, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway (chairman)
K. Alexander Müller (University of Zurich, Switzerland)
Jahn-Teller bi-polarons and their condensation (abstract)
Ching-Wu (Paul) Chu (University of Houston, USA and Hongkong University of Science and Technology, Hongkong)
Materials and physics of high temperature superconductors: A summary, two recent experiments and a comment
Antonio Barone (University of Naples Federico II, Italy)
Consequences of unconventional order parameter symmetry - High critical temperature structures
 
Session 4 (participants and invited)
Stellan Östlund, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden (chairman)
John Robert Schrieffer (NHMFL, Tallahassee, Florida, USA)
Magneto oscillations in unconventional superconductors well below Hc2
David Haviland (Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden)
Quantum complementarity for the superconducting condensate and the resulting electrodynamic duality
Anthony Leggett (University of Illinois, Urbana, USA)
Probing quantum mechanics towards the everyday world: where do we stand?
 
Session 5 (open to general audience)
Robert B. Laughlin (Stanford University, USA)
The theory of everything
Bertram Batlogg (Bell Labs, USA and ETH, Zürich, Switzerland)
Field-effect doping: a new approach to correlated electron states
Johannes E. Mooij (University of Delft, the Netherlands) Superconducting quantum bits
 
December 6
Session 6
Sune Svanberg, Lund University, Lund, Sweden (chairman)
Maciej Lewenstein (University of Hannover, Germany)
Ultracold dipolar gases - a challenge for experiments and theory
Steven Chu (Stanford University, USA)
A preliminary measurement of the fine structure constant based on atom interferometry 
Stig Stenholm (Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden)
The question of phase in a Bose-Einstein condensate 
 
Session 7
Klaus von Klitzing, Max Planck Institute, Stuttgart (chairman)
Hideaki Takayanagi (NTT, Atsugi, Japan)
Observation of qubit state with a dc-SQUID and dissipation effect in the SQUID
Zdravko Ivanov (Chalmers University, Göteborg, Sweden)
Enhancement of magnetic ordering by the stress fields of grain boundaries in ferromagnets
Jochen Mannhart (University of Augsburg, Germany)
Experiments with d-wave superconductors
Meet a researcher (Nobel Laureate) - invitation to high schools and press
 
Session 8
Arne Rosén, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg (chairman)
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji (Ècole Normale Supérieure, Paris, France)
Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium
(abstract)
Steven Girvin (Yale University, USA)
DC transformer and DC Josephson(-like) effects in quantum Hall bilayers
David M. Lee (Cornell University, USA)
Impurity-helium solids - quantum gels?
 
Session 9
Robert C. Richardson, Cornell University, USA, (chairman)
Serge Haroche (Ècole Normale Supérieure, Paris, France)
Quantum information with atoms and photons in a cavity: entanglement, complementarity and decoherence studies
Gunnar Björk (Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden)
A theory of the relative phase and number difference of two quantized harmonic oscillators
Stefen Kröll (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden)
Initial experiments concerning quantum information processing in rare-earth-ion doped crystals
Extended discussions (Robert Richardson, discussion leader)
 
December 7
Session 10
Göran Wendin, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden (chairman)
Gerd Schön (University of Karlsruhe, Germany)
Noise and decoherence in quantum two-level systems
Yasunobu Nakamura (NEC, Tsukuba, Japan)
Coherent manipulations of charge-number states in a Cooper-pair box
Michel Devoret (CEA-Saclay, France & Yale University, USA)
Ramsey fringe measurement of decoherence in a novel superconducting quantum bit based on the Cooper pair box
 
Session 11
Erland Wikborg, Ericsson Microelectronics, Kista, Sweden (chairman)
Per Delsing (Chalmers University, Göteborg, Sweden)
Reading out charge qubits with a radio frequency single electron transistor 
John Clarke (University of Berkeley, USA)
Quiet readout for superconducting flux states
Konstantin Likharev (SUNY, Stony Brook, USA)
CUBIT: A superconductor device for controlled coupling of flux and charge qu-bits

Participants
Zhores I. Alferov
Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia
Boris Altshuler
Princeton University & NEC, USA
Philip W. Anderson
Princeton University, USA
Alexander Andreev
Kapitza Institute, Moscow, Russia
Antonio Barone
Universitá di Napoli "Federico II", Italy
Bertram Batlogg
ETH Zürich, Switzerland
Gunnar Björk
Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
Steven Chu
Stanford University, USA
Ching-Wu (Paul) Chu
University of Houston, USA & HongKong University of Science & Technology, Hongkong
Tord Claeson
Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden
John Clarke
University of California Berkeley, USA
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji
École Normale Supérieure, Paris, France
Eric A. Cornell
JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder , USA
Per Delsing
Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden
Michel Devoret
CEA-Saclay, France & Yale University, USA
Leo Esaki
Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan
Steven Girvin
Yale University, USA
Serge Haroche
École Normale Supérieure, Paris, France
David Haviland
Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm
Alan J. Heeger
University of California Santa Barbara, USA
Zdravko Ivanov
Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden
Mats Jonson
Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden
Wolfgang Ketterle
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
Matti Krusius
Helsinki University of Technology, Finland
Stefan Kröll
Lund Institutet of Technology, Sweden
Robert B. Laughlin
Stanford University, USA
David M. Lee
Cornell University, USA
Anthony Leggett
University of Illinois, Urbana, USA
Maciej Lewenstein
University of Hannover, Germany
Konstantin K. Likharev
SUNY, Stony Brook, USA
Poul Erik Lindelof
University of Copenhagen
Jochen Mannhart
University of Augsburg, Germany
Johannes E. Mooij
University of Delft , the Netherlands
K. Alexander Müller
University of Zürich, Switzerland
Yasunobu Nakamura,
NEC, Tsukuba, Japan
Douglas D. Osheroff
Stanford University, USA
Mikko Paalanen
Helsinki University of Technology, Finland
William D. Phillips
NIST, Gaithersburg, USA
Robert C. Richardson
Cornell University, USA
Arne Rosén
Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden
Gerd Schön
University of Karlsruhe, Germany
John Robert Schrieffer
NHMFL, Tallahassee, Florida, USA
Robert Shekhter
Göteborg University, Sweden
Stig Stenholm,
Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
Asle Sudbø
Norwegian University of Science & Technology, Trondheim, Norway
Jan-Erik Sundgren
Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden
Sune Svanberg
Lund University, Sweden
Hideaki Takayanagi
NTT, Atsugi, Japan
Klaus von Klitzing
Max Planck Institute, Stuttgart, Germany
Richard A. Webb
University of Maryland, USA
Göran Wendin
Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden
Carl E. Wieman
JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
Erland Wikborg
Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden
Stellan Östlund
Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden

 

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