Landmarks in the
history of gene technology
Miescher, Switzerland, first isolates nucleic
acid from biological material.
Beadle* and E.
Tatum, USA, put forward the "one gene
– one enzyme" hypothesis. (*1958)
Avery, USA, shows that genetic material does
not consist of proteins but of deoxyribonucleic
Watson*, USA, and F.
Crick*, UK, show that the DNA molecule
consists of a double helix, thus making one of
the most important discoveries of this century.
Kornberg*, USA, discovers the enzyme DNA
polymerase, which is needed for copying DNA.
Todd*, UK, receives the Nobel Prize in
Chemistry for synthesis DNA's building blocks.
Khorana and his coworkers in the USA
develop these chemical methods further and, for
the first time (1970), synthesise a biologically
Nirenberg*, J. Matthei,
Ochoa and their co-workers in the USA
leads to an understanding of the genetic code.
Arber*, Switzerland, D.
Nathans* and H.
Smith*, USA, discover restriction
enzymes, which can cleave DNA molecules in a
predetermined way and can hence function as
important tools in gene technology. (*1978)
Berg*, USA, lays the foundation of
recombinant-DNA technology. (*1980)
Gilbert*, USA, and F.
Sanger*, UK, develop methods for
determining the sequence of DNA. (*1980)
Smith*, Canada, and his co-workers manage to
induce a site-directed mutation in a
bacteriophage DNA molecule.
Smith* together with A. Fehrst and
G. Winter, UK, manages to produce large
quantities of an enzyme in which, using
site-directed mutagenesis, one pre-determined
amino acid is exchanged for another. (*1993)
||The PCR method
developed by Kary B. Mullis*, USA, for
mass-copying of DNA is presented for the first