ATP first discovered in
ATP was first discovered by the
German chemist Karl Lohmann. Its structure is
established some years later. In 1948 Alexander
Todd (UK) synthesises ATP chemically.
Vladimir Engelhart (Russia)
notes in 1935 that muscle contractions require ATP.
Between 1939 and 1941 Fritz
Lipmann (USA) shows that ATP is the main bearer
of chemical energy in the cell. He coins the phrase
"energy-rich phosphate bonds".
1937 - Herman Kalckar (Denmark)
establishes that ATP synthase is linked with cell
1961 - The American Ephraim
Racker isolates the F1 part of the ATP
1961 - Peter
Mitchell (UK) shows that cell respiration leads
to differing concentrations of hydrogen ions (pH)
inside and outside the mitochondrial membrane (the
1964 - Paul D.
Boyer proposes that ATP is synthesised through
structural changes in the ATP synthase enzyme.
1973 - Boyer discovers that the
step in ATP synthesis which requires energy is the
release of ATP and the binding of ADP together with
Pi ("The Binding Change Mechanism").
1981 - John E.
Walker determines the DNA sequence of the genes
encoding the proteins in ATP synthase.
1994 - The structure of the
F1 part of the ATP synthase is determined
by Walker and co-workers.
1996-1997 - The hypothesis that
parts of ATP synthase rotate during the synthesis and
hydrolysis of ATP is demonstrated chemically (Richard
Cross, USA), spectroscopically (Wolfgang Junge,
Germany) and microscopically (Masasuke Yoshida,
K+-ATPase ion pump
1950's - British researchers
Richard Keynes and Alan
- that Na+ flows into the cell upon
- that Na+ is probably transported out
of the cell when ATP is consumed
- that Na+ transport from the cell can
be inhibited by inhibiting ATP synthesis.
1957 - Jens C.
Skou finds an ATPase that is activated by sodium
and potassium ions. This is the first ion pump to be
1961 Other ion pumps
requiring ATP are discovered.