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Lists of Nobel Prizes and Laureates

Lists of Nobel Prizes and Laureates

Nobel Prize Facts

Collage of Laureates

On 27 November 1895, Alfred Nobel signed his last will and testament, giving the largest share of his fortune to a series of prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature and Peace - the Nobel Prizes. In 1968, Sveriges Riksbank (Sweden's central bank) established The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel. Learn more about the Laureates here.

Nobel Laureates

567 Nobel Prizes!

Between 1901 and 2014, the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 567 times.

Nobel Prize Number of Prizes Number of Laureates Awarded to one Laureate Shared by two Laureates Shared by three Laureates
Physics 108 199 47 31 30
Chemistry 106 169 63 22 21
Medicine 105 207 38 31 36
Literature 107 111 103 4 -
Peace 95 103+25 64 29 2
Economic Sciences 46 75 23 17 6
Total: 567 889 338 134 95

In the statutes of the Nobel Foundation it says: "A prize amount may be equally divided between two works, each of which is considered to merit a prize. If a work that is being rewarded has been produced by two or three persons, the prize shall be awarded to them jointly. In no case may a prize amount be divided between more than three persons."

Collage of Laureates

889 Nobel Laureates* !

864 Laureates and 25 organizations have been awarded the Nobel Prize between 1901 and 2014. Of them, 75 are Laureates in Economic Sciences. A small number of individuals and organizations have been honoured more than once, which means that 860 individuals and 22 unique organizations have received the Nobel Prize in total. See "Multiple Nobel Laureates".

List of all Nobel Laureates List of Nobel Prize awarded organizations

Lists of all Nobel Laureates in
| Physics | Chemistry | Physiology or Medicine | Literature | Peace | Economic Sciences |

Statutes

Years when the Nobel Prize Have Not Been Awarded

Since the start, in 1901, there are some years when the Nobel Prizes have not been awarded. The total number of times are 50. Most of them during World War I (1914-1918) and II (1939-1945). In the statutes of the Nobel Foundation it says: "If none of the works under consideration is found to be of the importance indicated in the first paragraph, the prize money shall be reserved until the following year. If, even then, the prize cannot be awarded, the amount shall be added to the Foundation's restricted funds.".

Nobel Prize Year
Physics 1916, 1931, 1934, 1940, 1941, 1942
Chemistry 1916, 1917, 1919, 1924, 1933, 1940, 1941, 1942
Medicine 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1921, 1925, 1940, 1941, 1942
Literature 1914, 1918, 1935, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943
Peace 1914, 1915, 1916, 1918, 1923, 1924, 1928, 1932, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1948, 1955, 1956, 1966, 1967, 1972
Economic Sciences -
Bindings

Nobel Laureates and Field

The most common fields for Physics Laureates is particle physics, for Chemistry Laureates it is biochemistry, for Medicine Laureates it is genetics and for Laureates in Economic Sciences it is Macroeconomics.

All Laureates sorted by field and genre for literature:
| Physics | Chemistry | Physiology or Medicine | Literature | Peace | Economic Sciences |

House

Nobel Laureates and Affiliation

Nobel Laureates listed by affiliation

(Only Nobel Laureates in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, and Laureates in Economic Sciences are shown in the list.)

Globe

Nobel Laureates and Country of Birth

Find out where the Laureates were born in this interactive world map showing Nobel Laureates and country of birth.

Interactive world map

List of all Nobel Laureates sorted by country of birth

Mother Teresa and Alva Myrdal

Nobel Laureates and Age

The average age of all Nobel Laureates in all prize categories between 1901 and 2014 is 59 years.

More information about Nobel Laureates and average age

All Nobel Laureates listed by age

See the list of Nobel Laureate Birthdays

Among the Nobel Laureates, the two most common dates for birthdays are 21 May and 28 February.

The Youngest Nobel Laureates

Age Name Category/Year Date of birth
17 Malala Yousafzai Peace 2014 12 July 1997
25 Lawrence Bragg Physics 1915 31 March 1890
31 Werner Heisenberg Physics 1932 5 December 1901
31 Tsung-Dao Lee Physics 1957 24 November 1926
31 Carl D. Anderson Physics 1936 3 September 1905
31 Paul A. M. Dirac Physics 1933 8 August 1902
32 Frederick G. Banting Medicine 1923 14 November 1891
32 Tawakkol Karman Peace 2011 7 February 1979
32 Rudolf Mössbauer Physics 1961 31 January 1929
32 Mairead Corrigan Peace 1976 27 January 1944
33 Joshua Lederberg Medicine 1958 23 May 1925
33 Betty Williams Peace 1976 22 May 1943
33 Rigoberta Menchú Tum Peace 1992 9 January 1959
Category Name Year of Award Age of Nobel Laureate
Physics William Lawrence Bragg 1915 25
Chemistry Frédéric Joliot 1935 35
Physiology or Medicine Frederick Banting 1923 32
Literature Rudyard Kipling 1907 42
Peace Malala Yousafzai 2014 17
Economic Sciences Kenneth J. Arrow 1972 51

The Oldest Nobel Laureates

Age Name Category/Year Date of birth
90 Leonid Hurwicz Economic Sciences 2007 21 August 1917
89 Lloyd Shapley Economic Sciences 2012 2 June 1923
88 Raymond Davis Jr. Physics 2002 14 October 1914
88 Doris Lessing Literature 2007 22 October 1919
87 Yoichiro Nambu Physics 2008 18 January 1921
87 Vitaly L. Ginzburg Physics 2003 4 October 1916
87 Peyton Rous Medicine 1966 5 October 1879
87 Joseph Rotblat Peace 1995 4 November 1908
87 Karl von Frisch Medicine 1973 20 November 1886
85 Ferdinand Buisson Peace 1927 20 December 1841
85 John B. Fenn Chemistry 2002 15 June 1917
85 Theodor Mommsen Literature 1902 30 November 1817
85 Willard S. Boyle Physics 2009 19 August 1929
Category Name Year of Award Age of Nobel Laureate
Physics Raymond Davis Jr. 2002 88
Chemistry John B. Fenn 2002 85
Physiology or Medicine Peyton Rous 1966 87
Literature Doris Lessing 2007 88
Peace Joseph Rotblat 1995 87
Economic Sciences Leonid Hurwicz 2007 90

47 Nobel Prizes to Women

Between 1901 and 2014 the Nobel Prize and Prize in Economic Sciences have been awarded 47 times to women.

List of all female Nobel Laureates

Two Nobel Laureates have Declined the Nobel Prize!

Jean-Paul Sartre, awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature, declined the prize because he had consistently declined all official honours.

Le Duc Tho, awarded the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize jointly with US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. They were awarded the Prize for negotiating the Vietnam peace accord. Le Doc Tho said that he was not in a position to accept the Nobel Peace Prize, citing the situation in Vietnam as his reason.

Forced to Decline the Nobel Prize!

Four Nobel Laureates have been forced by authorities to decline the Nobel Prize. Adolf Hitler forbade three German Nobel Laureates, Richard Kuhn, Adolf Butenandt and Gerhard Domagk, from accepting the Nobel Prize. All of them could later receive the Nobel Prize Diploma and Medal, but not the prize amount.

Boris Pasternak, the 1958 Nobel Laureate in Literature, initially accepted the Nobel Prize but was later coerced by the authorities of the Soviet Union, his native country, to decline the Nobel Prize.

Three Nobel Laureates Have Been under Arrest at the Time of the Award

German pacifist and journalist Carl von Ossietzky

Burmese politician Aung San Suu Kyi

Chinese human rights activist Liu Xiaobo

Multiple Nobel Laureates

The work of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) has been honoured by a Nobel Peace Prize three times. Besides, the founder of the ICRC, Henry Dunant, was awarded the first Nobel Peace Prize in 1901.

Linus Pauling is the only person to have been awarded two unshared Nobel Prizes - the 1954 Nobel Prize in Chemistry and the 1962 Nobel Peace Prize.

J. Bardeen M. Curie L. Pauling
Physics 1956
Physics 1972
Physics 1903
Chemistry 1911
Chemistry 1954
Peace 1962
F. Sanger ICRC UNHCR
Chemistry 1958
Chemistry 1980
Peace 1917
Peace 1944
Peace 1963
Peace 1954
Peace 1981

Posthumous Nobel Prizes

From 1974, the Statutes of the Nobel Foundation stipulate that a Prize cannot be awarded posthumously, unless death has occurred after the announcement of the Nobel Prize. Before 1974, the Nobel Prize has only been awarded posthumously twice: to Dag Hammarskjöld (Nobel Peace Prize 1961) and Erik Axel Karlfeldt (Nobel Prize in Literature 1931).

Following the 2011 announcement of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, it was discovered that one of the Medicine Laureates, Ralph Steinman, had passed away three days earlier. The Board of the Nobel Foundation examined the statutes, and an interpretation of the purpose of the rule above lead to the conclusion that Ralph Steinman should continue to remain a Nobel Laureate, as the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet had announced the 2011 Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine without knowing of his death.

"Family Nobel Laureates"

As you may notice, the Curies were a very successful 'Nobel Prize family'. Marie Curie herself was awarded two Nobel Prizes.

Read more about Marie and Pierre Curie and the Discovery of Polonium and Radium.
Nobel Medal

The Nobel Prize Insignias

At the Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies on 10 December the Nobel Laureates receive three things: a Nobel Diploma, a Nobel Medal and a document confirming the Nobel Prize amount. Each Nobel Diploma is a unique work of art, created by foremost Swedish and Norwegian artists and calligraphers. The Nobel Medals are handmade with careful precision and in 18 carat green gold plated with 24 carat gold.

The Nobel Medals in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine and Literature are identical on the face: it shows the image of Alfred Nobel and the years of his birth and death (1833-1896). Nobel's portrait also appears on the Nobel Peace Prize Medal and the Medal for the Prize in Economic Sciences, but with a slightly different design. The image on the reverse varies according to the institution awarding the prize.

More about the Nobel Medals

The Nobel Diplomas

Each Nobel Diploma is a unique work of art, created by foremost Swedish and Norwegian artists and calligraphers.

More about the Nobel Medals
Diagram

The Nobel Prize Amount

Alfred Nobel left most of his estate, more than SEK 31 million (today approximately SEK 1,702 million) to be converted into a fund and invested in "safe securities." The income from the investments was to be "distributed annually in the form of prizes to those who during the preceding year have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind."

The Nobel Prize amount for 2014 is set at Swedish kronor (SEK) 8.0 million per full Nobel Prize.

More about the Nobel Prize Amount

Laurel wreath

* Why are the individuals and organisations awarded a Nobel Prize called Nobel Laureates?

The word "Laureate" refers to being signified by the laurel wreath. In Greek mythology, the god Apollo is represented wearing a laurel wreath on his head. A laureal wreath is a circular crown made of branches and leaves of the bay laurel (In latin: Laurus nobilis). In Ancient Greece, laurel wreaths were awarded to victors as a sign of honour - both in athletic competitions and in poetic meets.

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