Nobelprize.org
Lists of Nobel Prizes and Laureates

Show with photos


Lists of Nobel Prizes and Laureates

Show with photos

Lawrence Bragg, Leonid Hurwicz

Nobel Laureates by Age

This list shows the Laureates by age at the year of the award.

Age 17

Malala Yousafzai thumb picture
Malala Yousafzai

"for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education"

Age 25

Lawrence Bragg thumb picture
Lawrence Bragg

"for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays"

Age 31

Werner Heisenberg thumb picture
Werner Heisenberg

"for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"

Paul A.M. Dirac thumb picture
Paul A.M. Dirac

"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"

Carl D. Anderson thumb picture
Carl D. Anderson

"for his discovery of the positron"

Tsung-Dao Lee thumb picture
Tsung-Dao Lee

"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"

Age 32

Rudolf Mössbauer thumb picture
Rudolf Mössbauer

"for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name"

Tawakkol Karman thumb picture
Tawakkol Karman

"for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work"

Age 33

Brian D. Josephson thumb picture
Brian D. Josephson

"for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects"

Joshua Lederberg thumb picture
Joshua Lederberg

"for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria"

Rigoberta Menchú Tum thumb picture
Rigoberta Menchú Tum

"in recognition of her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples"

Age 34

Donald A. Glaser thumb picture
Donald A. Glaser

"for the invention of the bubble chamber"

James Watson thumb picture
James Watson

"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"

Age 35

Guglielmo Marconi thumb picture
Guglielmo Marconi

"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"

Max von Laue thumb picture
Max von Laue

"for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals"

Arthur H. Compton thumb picture
Arthur H. Compton

"for his discovery of the effect named after him"

Chen Ning Yang thumb picture
Chen Ning Yang

"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"

Frédéric Joliot thumb picture
Frédéric Joliot

"in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements"

Age 36

Marie Curie thumb picture
Marie Curie

"in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"

Konstantin Novoselov thumb picture
Konstantin Novoselov

"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"

Adolf Butenandt thumb picture
Adolf Butenandt

"for his work on sex hormones"

Archibald V. Hill thumb picture
Archibald V. Hill

"for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle"

Age 37

Pieter Zeeman thumb picture
Pieter Zeeman

"in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"

Niels Bohr thumb picture
Niels Bohr

"for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"

Louis de Broglie thumb picture
Louis de Broglie

"for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons"

Enrico Fermi thumb picture
Enrico Fermi

"for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"

J. Georg Bednorz thumb picture
J. Georg Bednorz

"for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"

Ernest Rutherford thumb picture
Ernest Rutherford

"for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances"

David Baltimore thumb picture
David Baltimore

"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"

Age 38

Manne Siegbahn thumb picture
Manne Siegbahn

"for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy"

Gustav Hertz thumb picture
Gustav Hertz

"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"

Ernest Lawrence thumb picture
Ernest Lawrence

"for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"

Irčne Joliot-Curie thumb picture
Irène Joliot-Curie

"in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements"

Richard Kuhn thumb picture
Richard Kuhn

"for his work on carotenoids and vitamins"

Richard L.M. Synge thumb picture
Richard L.M. Synge

"for their invention of partition chromatography"

Robert Bárány thumb picture
Robert Bárány

"for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"

Otto Meyerhof thumb picture
Otto Meyerhof

"for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"

Frederick C. Robbins thumb picture
Frederick C. Robbins

"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"

Georges J.F. Köhler thumb picture
Georges J.F. Köhler

"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"

Age 39

Owen Chamberlain thumb picture
Owen Chamberlain

"for their discovery of the antiproton"

Gerd Binnig thumb picture
Gerd Binnig

"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"

Glenn T. Seaborg thumb picture
Glenn T. Seaborg

"for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements"

Alexis Carrel thumb picture
Alexis Carrel

"in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs"

Ernst B. Chain thumb picture
Ernst B. Chain

"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"

Thomas H. Weller thumb picture
Thomas H. Weller

"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"

Leymah Gbowee thumb picture
Leymah Gbowee

"for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work"

Age 40

Charles Glover Barkla thumb picture
Charles Glover Barkla

"for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements"

E. M. Purcell thumb picture
E. M. Purcell

"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"

Murray Gell-Mann thumb picture
Murray Gell-Mann

"for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"

Samuel C.C. Ting thumb picture
Samuel C.C. Ting

"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"

Eric A. Cornell thumb picture
Eric A. Cornell

"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"

Frederick Sanger thumb picture
Frederick Sanger

"for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin"

Manfred Eigen thumb picture
Manfred Eigen

"for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"

Hartmut Michel thumb picture
Hartmut Michel

"for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"

Age 41

Robert Schrieffer thumb picture
Robert Schrieffer

"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"

Victor Grignard thumb picture
Victor Grignard

"for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry"

Harold C. Urey thumb picture
Harold C. Urey

"for his discovery of heavy hydrogen"

Arthur Kornberg thumb picture
Arthur Kornberg

"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"

Marshall W. Nirenberg thumb picture
Marshall W. Nirenberg

"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"

Howard M. Temin thumb picture
Howard M. Temin

"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"

Age 42

Albert Einstein thumb picture
Albert Einstein

"for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"

Sir Venkata Raman thumb picture
Sir Venkata Raman

"for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him"

Hideki Yukawa thumb picture
Hideki Yukawa

"for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"

Willis E. Lamb thumb picture
Willis E. Lamb

"for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum"

Nicolay G. Basov thumb picture
Nicolay G. Basov

"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"

Leon N. Cooper thumb picture
Leon N. Cooper

"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"

Robert Woodrow Wilson thumb picture
Robert Woodrow Wilson

"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"

Klaus von Klitzing thumb picture
Klaus von Klitzing

"for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"

Adam G. Riess thumb picture
Adam G. Riess

"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"

The Svedberg thumb picture
The Svedberg

"for his work on disperse systems"

Wendell M. Stanley thumb picture
Wendell M. Stanley

"for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"

Archer J.P. Martin thumb picture
Archer J.P. Martin

"for their invention of partition chromatography"

Thomas R. Cech thumb picture
Thomas R. Cech

"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"

William P. Murphy thumb picture
William P. Murphy

"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"

Rudyard Kipling thumb picture
Rudyard Kipling

"in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author"

Age 43

Philipp Lenard thumb picture
Philipp Lenard

"for his work on cathode rays"

Gustaf Dalén thumb picture
Gustaf Dalén

"for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys"

James Franck thumb picture
James Franck

"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"

Russell A. Hulse thumb picture
Russell A. Hulse

"for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"

Richard Willstätter thumb picture
Richard Willstätter

"for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"

Koichi Tanaka thumb picture
Koichi Tanaka

"for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules"

Niels Ryberg Finsen thumb picture
Niels Ryberg Finsen

"in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science"

Edgar Adrian thumb picture
Edgar Adrian

"for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"

Gerald M. Edelman thumb picture
Gerald M. Edelman

"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"

Age 44

Pierre Curie thumb picture
Pierre Curie

"in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"

James Chadwick thumb picture
James Chadwick

"for the discovery of the neutron"

Polykarp Kusch thumb picture
Polykarp Kusch

"for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"

Ivar Giaever thumb picture
Ivar Giaever

"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"

Wolfgang Ketterle thumb picture
Wolfgang Ketterle

"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"

Brian P. Schmidt thumb picture
Brian P. Schmidt

"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"

Svante Arrhenius thumb picture
Svante Arrhenius

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation"

Marie Curie thumb picture
Marie Curie

"in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element"

Frederick Soddy thumb picture
Frederick Soddy

"for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes"

Edwin M. McMillan thumb picture
Edwin M. McMillan

"for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements"

Roald Hoffmann thumb picture
Roald Hoffmann

"for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"

Albert Szent-Györgyi thumb picture
Albert Szent-Györgyi

"for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid"

Gerhard Domagk thumb picture
Gerhard Domagk

"for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil"

Michael S. Brown thumb picture
Michael S. Brown

"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"

Albert Camus thumb picture
Albert Camus

"for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times"

Age 45

Johannes Stark thumb picture
Johannes Stark

"for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields"

George Paget Thomson thumb picture
George Paget Thomson

"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"

Wolfgang Pauli thumb picture
Wolfgang Pauli

"for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle"

Burton Richter thumb picture
Burton Richter

"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"

Arno Penzias thumb picture
Arno Penzias

"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"

Francis W. Aston thumb picture
Francis W. Aston

"for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule"

John C. Kendrew thumb picture
John C. Kendrew

"for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"

Johann Deisenhofer thumb picture
Johann Deisenhofer

"for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"

Ronald Ross thumb picture
Ronald Ross

"for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it"

Peter Medawar thumb picture
Peter Medawar

"for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"

François Jacob thumb picture
François Jacob

"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"

Joseph L. Goldstein thumb picture
Joseph L. Goldstein

"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"

Sinclair Lewis thumb picture
Sinclair Lewis

"for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters"

Age 46

Erwin Schrödinger thumb picture
Erwin Schrödinger

"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"

Isidor Isaac Rabi thumb picture
Isidor Isaac Rabi

"for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"

William B. Shockley thumb picture
William B. Shockley

"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"

Robert Hofstadter thumb picture
Robert Hofstadter

"for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"

Steven Weinberg thumb picture
Steven Weinberg

"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"

Kenneth G. Wilson thumb picture
Kenneth G. Wilson

"for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"

Theodore W. Richards thumb picture
Theodore W. Richards

"in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements"

Arne Tiselius thumb picture
Arne Tiselius

"for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins"

August Krogh thumb picture
August Krogh

"for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism"

Corneille Heymans thumb picture
Corneille Heymans

"for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration"

Francis Crick thumb picture
Francis Crick

"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"

Maurice Wilkins thumb picture
Maurice Wilkins

"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"

Andrew F. Huxley thumb picture
Andrew F. Huxley

"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"

Robert W. Holley thumb picture
Robert W. Holley

"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"

H. Gobind Khorana thumb picture
H. Gobind Khorana

"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"

Craig C. Mello thumb picture
Craig C. Mello

"for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"

Sigrid Undset thumb picture
Sigrid Undset

"principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages"

Pearl Buck thumb picture
Pearl Buck

"for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces"

Oscar Arias Sánchez thumb picture
Oscar Arias Sánchez

"for his work for peace in Central America, efforts which led to the accord signed in Guatemala on August 7 this year"

Aung San Suu Kyi  thumb picture
Aung San Suu Kyi

"for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights"

Age 47

Wilhelm Wien thumb picture
Wilhelm Wien

"for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat"

Cecil Powell thumb picture
Cecil Powell

"for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"

Felix Bloch thumb picture
Felix Bloch

"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"

Julian Schwinger thumb picture
Julian Schwinger

"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"

Richard P. Feynman thumb picture
Richard P. Feynman

"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"

Sheldon Glashow thumb picture
Sheldon Glashow

"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"

Eduard Buchner thumb picture
Eduard Buchner

"for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation"

Alfred Werner thumb picture
Alfred Werner

"in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry"

Friedrich Bergius thumb picture
Friedrich Bergius

"in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"

George Porter thumb picture
George Porter

"for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"

Roderick MacKinnon thumb picture
Roderick MacKinnon

"for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels"

Emil von Behring thumb picture
Emil von Behring

"for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths"

Sir Howard Florey thumb picture
Sir Howard Florey

"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"

Hamilton O. Smith thumb picture
Hamilton O. Smith

"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"

Erwin Neher thumb picture
Erwin Neher

"for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"

Andrew Z. Fire thumb picture
Andrew Z. Fire

"for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"

Joseph Brodsky thumb picture
Joseph Brodsky

"for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity"

José Ramos-Horta thumb picture
José Ramos-Horta

"for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor"

Jody Williams thumb picture
Jody Williams

"for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines"

Age 48

Ernest T.S. Walton thumb picture
Ernest T.S. Walton

"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"

John Bardeen thumb picture
John Bardeen

"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"

Aleksandr M. Prokhorov thumb picture
Aleksandr M. Prokhorov

"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"

Leo Esaki thumb picture
Leo Esaki

"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"

Robert B. Laughlin thumb picture
Robert B. Laughlin

"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"

Paul Karrer thumb picture
Paul Karrer

"for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2"

Kurt Alder thumb picture
Kurt Alder

"for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis"

Max F. Perutz thumb picture
Max F. Perutz

"for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"

Robert B. Woodward thumb picture
Robert B. Woodward

"for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis"

Walter Gilbert thumb picture
Walter Gilbert

"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"

Jean-Marie Lehn thumb picture
Jean-Marie Lehn

"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"

Otto Warburg thumb picture
Otto Warburg

"for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"

Bengt I. Samuelsson thumb picture
Bengt I. Samuelsson

"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"

Susumu Tonegawa thumb picture
Susumu Tonegawa

"for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity"

Eric F. Wieschaus thumb picture
Eric F. Wieschaus

"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"

Carol W. Greider thumb picture
Carol W. Greider

"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"

Eugene O'Neill thumb picture
Eugene O'Neill

"for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy"

Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo thumb picture
Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo

"for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor"

Barack H. Obama thumb picture
Barack H. Obama

"for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples"

Age 49

Hendrik A. Lorentz thumb picture
Hendrik A. Lorentz

"in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"

Owen Willans Richardson thumb picture
Owen Willans Richardson

"for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him"

Charles H. Townes thumb picture
Charles H. Townes

"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"

Ben R. Mottelson thumb picture
Ben R. Mottelson

"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"

James Cronin thumb picture
James Cronin

"for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"

Steven Chu thumb picture
Steven Chu

"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"

William D. Phillips thumb picture
William D. Phillips

"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"

Horst L. Störmer thumb picture
Horst L. Störmer

"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"

Jacobus H. van 't Hoff thumb picture
Jacobus H. van 't Hoff

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions"

Hans Fischer thumb picture
Hans Fischer

"for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin"

Kary B. Mullis thumb picture
Kary B. Mullis

"for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method"

Allvar Gullstrand thumb picture
Allvar Gullstrand

"for his work on the dioptrics of the eye"

Jules Bordet thumb picture
Jules Bordet

"for his discoveries relating to immunity"

George R. Minot thumb picture
George R. Minot

"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"

Paul Müller thumb picture
Paul Müller

"for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods"

Edward Tatum thumb picture
Edward Tatum

"for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"

Alan L. Hodgkin thumb picture
Alan L. Hodgkin

"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"

Werner Arber thumb picture
Werner Arber

"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"

Bert Sakmann thumb picture
Bert Sakmann

"for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"

Maurice Maeterlinck thumb picture
Maurice Maeterlinck

"in appreciation of his many-sided literary activities, and especially of his dramatic works, which are distinguished by a wealth of imagination and by a poetic fancy, which reveals, sometimes in the guise of a fairy tale, a deep inspiration, while in a mysterious way they appeal to the readers' own feelings and stimulate their imaginations"

Romain Rolland thumb picture
Romain Rolland

"as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings"

Age 50

J.J. Thomson thumb picture
J.J. Thomson

"in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"

Il´ja M. Frank thumb picture
Il´ja M. Frank

"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"

Antony Hewish thumb picture
Antony Hewish

"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"

Carlo Rubbia thumb picture
Carlo Rubbia

"for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"

Carl E. Wieman thumb picture
Carl E. Wieman

"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"

Emil Fischer thumb picture
Emil Fischer

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses"

Fritz Haber thumb picture
Fritz Haber

"for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"

Heinrich Wieland thumb picture
Heinrich Wieland

"for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances"

Artturi Virtanen thumb picture
Artturi Virtanen

"for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method"

Lord Todd thumb picture
Lord Todd

"for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes"

Melvin Calvin thumb picture
Melvin Calvin

"for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"

Yuan T. Lee thumb picture
Yuan T. Lee

"for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"

Sidney Altman thumb picture
Sidney Altman

"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"

Edward A. Doisy thumb picture
Edward A. Doisy

"for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K"

Daniel Bovet thumb picture
Daniel Bovet

"for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles"

Daniel Nathans thumb picture
Daniel Nathans

"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"

Harold E. Varmus thumb picture
Harold E. Varmus

"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"

Shinya Yamanaka thumb picture
Shinya Yamanaka

"for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"

Gerhart Hauptmann thumb picture
Gerhart Hauptmann

"primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art"

Age 51

Henri Becquerel thumb picture
Henri Becquerel

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity"

Patrick M.S. Blackett thumb picture
Patrick M.S. Blackett

"for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation"

Douglas D. Osheroff thumb picture
Douglas D. Osheroff

"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"

Irving Langmuir thumb picture
Irving Langmuir

"for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry"

Derek Barton thumb picture
Derek Barton

"for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"

Robert Huber thumb picture
Robert Huber

"for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"

Carl Cori thumb picture
Carl Cori

"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"

Gerty Cori thumb picture
Gerty Cori

"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"

Baruch S. Blumberg thumb picture
Baruch S. Blumberg

"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"

Andrew V. Schally thumb picture
Andrew V. Schally

"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"

May-Britt Moser thumb picture
May-Britt Moser

"for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain"

Selma Lagerlöf thumb picture
Selma Lagerlöf

"in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings"

Frans Eemil Sillanpää thumb picture
Frans Eemil Sillanpää

"for his deep understanding of his country's peasantry and the exquisite art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship with Nature"

Kenneth J. Arrow thumb picture
Kenneth J. Arrow

"for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory"

Age 52

Joseph H. Taylor Jr. thumb picture
Joseph H. Taylor Jr.

"for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"

Andre Geim thumb picture
Andre Geim

"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"

Saul Perlmutter thumb picture
Saul Perlmutter

"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"

Sir William Ramsay thumb picture
Sir William Ramsay

"in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system"

Adolf Windaus thumb picture
Adolf Windaus

"for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins"

Peter Debye thumb picture
Peter Debye

"for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases"

Leopold Ruzicka thumb picture
Leopold Ruzicka

"for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes"

Willard F. Libby thumb picture
Willard F. Libby

"for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science"

Geoffrey Wilkinson thumb picture
Geoffrey Wilkinson

"for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds"

Mario J. Molina thumb picture
Mario J. Molina

"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"

Stefan W. Hell thumb picture
Stefan W. Hell

"for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy"

Max Theiler thumb picture
Max Theiler

"for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"

Hugo Theorell thumb picture
Hugo Theorell

"for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes"

Werner Forssmann thumb picture
Werner Forssmann

"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"

Konrad Bloch thumb picture
Konrad Bloch

"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"

Rolf M. Zinkernagel thumb picture
Rolf M. Zinkernagel

"for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"

Sir Paul Nurse thumb picture
Sir Paul Nurse

"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"

Edvard Moser thumb picture
Edvard Moser

"for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain"

Rabindranath Tagore thumb picture
Rabindranath Tagore

"because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West"

William Faulkner thumb picture
William Faulkner

"for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel"

Alexandr Solzhenitsyn thumb picture
Alexandr Solzhenitsyn

"for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature"

Wole Soyinka thumb picture
Wole Soyinka

"who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashions the drama of existence"

Age 53

William Bragg thumb picture
William Bragg

"for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays"

Victor F. Hess thumb picture
Victor F. Hess

"for his discovery of cosmic radiation"

Aage N. Bohr thumb picture
Aage N. Bohr

"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"

Abdus Salam thumb picture
Abdus Salam

"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"

Heinrich Rohrer thumb picture
Heinrich Rohrer

"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"

Gerardus 't Hooft thumb picture
Gerardus 't Hooft

"for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"

Frank Wilczek thumb picture
Frank Wilczek

"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"

Linus Pauling thumb picture
Linus Pauling

"for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances"

Richard E. Smalley thumb picture
Richard E. Smalley

"for their discovery of fullerenes"

Ahmed Zewail thumb picture
Ahmed Zewail

"for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy"

Tadeus Reichstein thumb picture
Tadeus Reichstein

"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"

Hans Krebs thumb picture
Hans Krebs

"for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"

Feodor Lynen thumb picture
Feodor Lynen

"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"

D. Carleton Gajdusek thumb picture
D. Carleton Gajdusek

"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"

Roger Guillemin thumb picture
Roger Guillemin

"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"

J. Michael Bishop thumb picture
J. Michael Bishop

"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"

Alfred G. Gilman thumb picture
Alfred G. Gilman

"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"

Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard thumb picture
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard

"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"

Halldór Laxness thumb picture
Halldór Laxness

"for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland"

Robert C. Merton thumb picture
Robert C. Merton

"for a new method to determine the value of derivatives"

Age 54

John Cockcroft thumb picture
John Cockcroft

"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"

Walter H. Brattain thumb picture
Walter H. Brattain

"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"

Pavel A. Cherenkov thumb picture
Pavel A. Cherenkov

"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"

Emilio Segrč thumb picture
Emilio Segrè

"for their discovery of the antiproton"

Lev Landau thumb picture
Lev Landau

"for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"

Philip W. Anderson thumb picture
Philip W. Anderson

"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"

Hiroshi Amano thumb picture
Hiroshi Amano

"for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources"

Henri Moissan thumb picture
Henri Moissan

"in recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace called after him"

Fritz Pregl thumb picture
Fritz Pregl

"for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances"

Norman Haworth thumb picture
Norman Haworth

"for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C"

William F. Giauque thumb picture
William F. Giauque

"for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures"

Vincent du Vigneaud thumb picture
Vincent du Vigneaud

"for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone"

Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin thumb picture
Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin

"for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"

Paul Berg thumb picture
Paul Berg

"for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"

Dudley R. Herschbach thumb picture
Dudley R. Herschbach

"for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"

Peter Agre thumb picture
Peter Agre

"for the discovery of water channels"

Eric Betzig thumb picture
Eric Betzig

"for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy"

Santiago Ramón y Cajal thumb picture
Santiago Ramón y Cajal

"in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"

Paul Ehrlich thumb picture
Paul Ehrlich

"in recognition of their work on immunity"

Philip S. Hench thumb picture
Philip S. Hench

"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"

Fritz Lipmann thumb picture
Fritz Lipmann

"for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"

Severo Ochoa thumb picture
Severo Ochoa

"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"

Barry J. Marshall thumb picture
Barry J. Marshall

"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"

Bruce A. Beutler thumb picture
Bruce A. Beutler

"for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"

Thomas Mann thumb picture
Thomas Mann

"principally for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature"

Orhan Pamuk thumb picture
Orhan Pamuk

"who in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures"

David Trimble thumb picture
David Trimble

"for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland"

Age 55

Albert A. Michelson thumb picture
Albert A. Michelson

"for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"

Robert A. Millikan thumb picture
Robert A. Millikan

"for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"

Otto Stern thumb picture
Otto Stern

"for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"

Edward V. Appleton thumb picture
Edward V. Appleton

"for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer"

H. David Politzer thumb picture
H. David Politzer

"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"

John H. Northrop thumb picture
John H. Northrop

"for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"

Ernst Otto Fischer thumb picture
Ernst Otto Fischer

"for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds"

Ivan Pavlov thumb picture
Ivan Pavlov

"in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged"

George Beadle thumb picture
George Beadle

"for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"

Jacques Monod thumb picture
Jacques Monod

"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"

Rodney R. Porter thumb picture
Rodney R. Porter

"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"

Allan M. Cormack thumb picture
Allan M. Cormack

"for the development of computer assisted tomography"

David H. Hubel thumb picture
David H. Hubel

"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"

John R. Vane thumb picture
John R. Vane

"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"

Stanley B. Prusiner thumb picture
Stanley B. Prusiner

"for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection"

H. Robert Horvitz thumb picture
H. Robert Horvitz

"for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"

Grazia Deledda thumb picture
Grazia Deledda

"for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general"

Ernest Hemingway thumb picture
Ernest Hemingway

"for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style"

Heinrich Böll thumb picture
Heinrich Böll

"for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature"

Gabriel García Márquez thumb picture
Gabriel García Márquez

"for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent's life and conflicts"

Liu Xiaobo thumb picture
Liu Xiaobo

"for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China"

Paul A. Samuelson thumb picture
Paul A. Samuelson

"for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science"

Paul Krugman thumb picture
Paul Krugman

"for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity"

Age 56

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen thumb picture
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him"

Jean Baptiste Perrin thumb picture
Jean Baptiste Perrin

"for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium"

Clinton Davisson thumb picture
Clinton Davisson

"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"

J. Hans D. Jensen thumb picture
J. Hans D. Jensen

"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"

Martin Ryle thumb picture
Martin Ryle

"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"

Melvin Schwartz thumb picture
Melvin Schwartz

"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"

Wilhelm Ostwald thumb picture
Wilhelm Ostwald

"in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction"

Walther Nernst thumb picture
Walther Nernst

"in recognition of his work in thermochemistry"

Hans von Euler-Chelpin thumb picture
Hans von Euler-Chelpin

"for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"

Christian Anfinsen thumb picture
Christian Anfinsen

"for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"

Aaron Klug thumb picture
Aaron Klug

"for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes"

John E. Walker thumb picture
John E. Walker

"for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"

Roger Y. Tsien thumb picture
Roger Y. Tsien

"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"

George H. Whipple thumb picture
George H. Whipple

"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"

Herbert S. Gasser thumb picture
Herbert S. Gasser

"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"

Hermann J. Muller thumb picture
Hermann J. Muller

"for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation"

Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. thumb picture
Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.

"for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones"

Rosalyn Yalow thumb picture
Rosalyn Yalow

"for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"

Peter C. Doherty thumb picture
Peter C. Doherty

"for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"

Jacinto Benavente thumb picture
Jacinto Benavente

"for the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama"

Roger Martin du Gard thumb picture
Roger Martin du Gard

"for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novel-cycle Les Thibault"

Gabriela Mistral thumb picture
Gabriela Mistral

"for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world"

Seamus Heaney thumb picture
Seamus Heaney

"for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past"

Herta Müller thumb picture
Herta Müller

"who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed"

Shirin Ebadi thumb picture
Shirin Ebadi

"for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children"

William F. Sharpe thumb picture
William F. Sharpe

"for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics"

Myron S. Scholes thumb picture
Myron S. Scholes

"for a new method to determine the value of derivatives"

James J. Heckman thumb picture
James J. Heckman

"for his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples"

Roger B. Myerson thumb picture
Roger B. Myerson

"for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory"

Age 57

Maria Goeppert Mayer thumb picture
Maria Goeppert Mayer

"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"

Luis Alvarez thumb picture
Luis Alvarez

"for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"

Val Fitch thumb picture
Val Fitch

"for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"

Carl Bosch thumb picture
Carl Bosch

"in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"

William Lipscomb thumb picture
William Lipscomb

"for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding"

John C. Polanyi thumb picture
John C. Polanyi

"for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"

Sir Harold Kroto thumb picture
Sir Harold Kroto

"for their discovery of fullerenes"

Aaron Ciechanover thumb picture
Aaron Ciechanover

"for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"

Venkatraman Ramakrishnan thumb picture
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan

"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"

Brian K. Kobilka thumb picture
Brian K. Kobilka

"for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"

Albrecht Kossel thumb picture
Albrecht Kossel

"in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances"

John F. Enders thumb picture
John F. Enders

"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"

Salvador E. Luria thumb picture
Salvador E. Luria

"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"

Christian de Duve thumb picture
Christian de Duve

"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"

Torsten N. Wiesel thumb picture
Torsten N. Wiesel

"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"

César Milstein thumb picture
César Milstein

"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"

Louis J. Ignarro thumb picture
Louis J. Ignarro

"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"

Linda B. Buck thumb picture
Linda B. Buck

"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"

Jack W. Szostak thumb picture
Jack W. Szostak

"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"

Verner von Heidenstam thumb picture
Verner von Heidenstam

"in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature"

Wladyslaw Reymont thumb picture
Wladyslaw Reymont

"for his great national epic, The Peasants"

Mo Yan thumb picture
Mo Yan

"who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary"

F.W. de Klerk thumb picture
F.W. de Klerk

"for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa"

Eric S. Maskin thumb picture
Eric S. Maskin

"for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory"

Age 58

C.T.R. Wilson thumb picture
C.T.R. Wilson

"for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour"

James Rainwater thumb picture
James Rainwater

"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"

Paul Sabatier thumb picture
Paul Sabatier

"for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent years"

George de Hevesy thumb picture
George de Hevesy

"for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"

John Cornforth thumb picture
John Cornforth

"for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions"

Peter Mitchell thumb picture
Peter Mitchell

"for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory"

Richard R. Ernst thumb picture
Richard R. Ernst

"for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy"

Julius Axelrod thumb picture
Julius Axelrod

"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"

Tim Hunt thumb picture
Tim Hunt

"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"

Richard Axel thumb picture
Richard Axel

"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"

Thomas C. Südhof thumb picture
Thomas C. Südhof

"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"

William Butler Yeats thumb picture
William Butler Yeats

"for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation"

Salvatore Quasimodo thumb picture
Salvatore Quasimodo

"for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times"

Elfriede Jelinek thumb picture
Elfriede Jelinek

"for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power"

Robert E. Lucas Jr. thumb picture
Robert E. Lucas Jr.

"for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy"

A. Michael Spence thumb picture
A. Michael Spence

"for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information"

Joseph E. Stiglitz thumb picture
Joseph E. Stiglitz

"for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information"

Age 59

Ferdinand Braun thumb picture
Ferdinand Braun

"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"

Charles Edouard Guillaume thumb picture
Charles Edouard Guillaume

"in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys"

Sin-Itiro Tomonaga thumb picture
Sin-Itiro Tomonaga

"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"

Simon van der Meer thumb picture
Simon van der Meer

"for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"

Pierre-Gilles de Gennes thumb picture
Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

"for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"

Robert C. Richardson thumb picture
Robert C. Richardson

"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"

Daniel C. Tsui thumb picture
Daniel C. Tsui

"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"

James B. Sumner thumb picture
James B. Sumner

"for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized"

Sir Cyril Hinshelwood thumb picture
Sir Cyril Hinshelwood

"for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions"

Stanford Moore thumb picture
Stanford Moore

"for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"

Roger D. Kornberg thumb picture
Roger D. Kornberg

"for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"

Johannes Fibiger thumb picture
Johannes Fibiger

"for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma"

Sir Bernard Katz thumb picture
Sir Bernard Katz

"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"

Henryk Sienkiewicz thumb picture
Henryk Sienkiewicz

"because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer"

Jean-Paul Sartre thumb picture
Jean-Paul Sartre

"for his work which, rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom and the quest for truth, has exerted a far-reaching influence on our age"

Kenzaburo Oe thumb picture
Kenzaburo Oe

"who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today"

Mikhail Gorbachev thumb picture
Mikhail Gorbachev

"for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community"

Al Gore thumb picture
Al Gore

"for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change"

Age 60

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes thumb picture
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes

"for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium"

Max Planck thumb picture
Max Planck

"in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta"

Arthur L. Schawlow thumb picture
Arthur L. Schawlow

"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"

K. Alex Müller thumb picture
K. Alex Müller

"for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"

Jerome I. Friedman thumb picture
Jerome I. Friedman

"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"

John C. Mather thumb picture
John C. Mather

"for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"

Shuji Nakamura thumb picture
Shuji Nakamura

"for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources"

Richard Zsigmondy thumb picture
Richard Zsigmondy

"for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry"

Nikolay Semenov thumb picture
Nikolay Semenov

"for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions"

Giulio Natta thumb picture
Giulio Natta

"for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers"

Ilya Prigogine thumb picture
Ilya Prigogine

"for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"

K. Barry Sharpless thumb picture
K. Barry Sharpless

"for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions"

Richard R. Schrock thumb picture
Richard R. Schrock

"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"

Bernardo Houssay thumb picture
Bernardo Houssay

"for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar"

Sir John Eccles thumb picture
Sir John Eccles

"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"

Godfrey N. Hounsfield thumb picture
Godfrey N. Hounsfield

"for the development of computer assisted tomography"

Baruj Benacerraf thumb picture
Baruj Benacerraf

"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"

John E. Sulston thumb picture
John E. Sulston

"for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"

Karl Gjellerup thumb picture
Karl Gjellerup

"for his varied and rich poetry, which is inspired by lofty ideals"

Henrik Pontoppidan thumb picture
Henrik Pontoppidan

"for his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark"

T.S. Eliot thumb picture
T.S. Eliot

"for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry"

Pär Lagerkvist thumb picture
Pär Lagerkvist

"for the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions confronting mankind"

John Steinbeck thumb picture
John Steinbeck

"for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception"

Mikhail Sholokhov thumb picture
Mikhail Sholokhov

"for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic of the Don, he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian people"

Gao Xingjian thumb picture
Gao Xingjian

"for an æuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama"

Kailash Satyarthi thumb picture
Kailash Satyarthi

"for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education"

Lawrence R. Klein thumb picture
Lawrence R. Klein

"for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies"

James A. Mirrlees thumb picture
James A. Mirrlees

"for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information"

Age 61

Eugene Wigner thumb picture
Eugene Wigner

"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"

Hans Bethe thumb picture
Hans Bethe

"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"

Nicolaas Bloembergen thumb picture
Nicolaas Bloembergen

"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"

Richard E. Taylor thumb picture
Richard E. Taylor

"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"

George F. Smoot thumb picture
George F. Smoot

"for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"

Sir Robert Robinson thumb picture
Sir Robert Robinson

"for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids"

William H. Stein thumb picture
William H. Stein

"for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"

Michael Smith thumb picture
Michael Smith

"for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies"

Martin Chalfie thumb picture
Martin Chalfie

"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"

William E. Moerner thumb picture
William E. Moerner

"for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy"

Sir Henry Dale thumb picture
Sir Henry Dale

"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"

André F. Cournand thumb picture
André F. Cournand

"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"

Dickinson W. Richards thumb picture
Dickinson W. Richards

"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"

Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet thumb picture
Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet

"for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"

George Wald thumb picture
George Wald

"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"

Alfred D. Hershey thumb picture
Alfred D. Hershey

"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"

Renato Dulbecco thumb picture
Renato Dulbecco

"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi thumb picture
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi

"for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"

Elizabeth H. Blackburn thumb picture
Elizabeth H. Blackburn

"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"

Knut Hamsun thumb picture
Knut Hamsun

"for his monumental work, Growth of the Soil"

Patrick White thumb picture
Patrick White

"for an epic and psychological narrative art which has introduced a new continent into literature"

Saul Bellow thumb picture
Saul Bellow

"for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work"

John Hume thumb picture
John Hume

"for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland"

George A. Akerlof thumb picture
George A. Akerlof

"for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information"

Robert F. Engle III thumb picture
Robert F. Engle III

"for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH)"

Finn E. Kydland thumb picture
Finn E. Kydland

"for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles"

Alvin E. Roth thumb picture
Alvin E. Roth

"for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design"

Lars Peter Hansen thumb picture
Lars Peter Hansen

"for their empirical analysis of asset prices"

Jean Tirole thumb picture
Jean Tirole

"for his analysis of market power and regulation"

Age 62

Lord Rayleigh thumb picture
Lord Rayleigh

"for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"

Hannes Alfvén thumb picture
Hannes Alfvén

"for fundamental work and discoveries in magnetohydro-dynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics"

Frederick Sanger thumb picture
Frederick Sanger

"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"

Elias James Corey thumb picture
Elias James Corey

"for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis"

Paul J. Crutzen thumb picture
Paul J. Crutzen

"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"

Robert Koch thumb picture
Robert Koch

"for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis"

Alphonse Laveran thumb picture
Alphonse Laveran

"in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases"

Karl Landsteiner thumb picture
Karl Landsteiner

"for his discovery of human blood groups"

Georg von Békésy thumb picture
Georg von Békésy

"for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"

George E. Palade thumb picture
George E. Palade

"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"

Ferid Murad thumb picture
Ferid Murad

"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"

Leland H. Hartwell thumb picture
Leland H. Hartwell

"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"

Sully Prudhomme thumb picture
Sully Prudhomme

"in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart and intellect"

Rudolf Eucken thumb picture
Rudolf Eucken

"in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life"

Derek Walcott thumb picture
Derek Walcott

"for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment"

Toni Morrison thumb picture
Toni Morrison

"who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality"

Herbert A. Simon thumb picture
Herbert A. Simon

"for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations"

Gerard Debreu thumb picture
Gerard Debreu

"for having incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory and for his rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium"

Gary S. Becker thumb picture
Gary S. Becker

"for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour"

Christopher A. Pissarides thumb picture
Christopher A. Pissarides

"for their analysis of markets with search frictions"

Age 63

Gabriel Lippmann thumb picture
Gabriel Lippmann

"for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"

Walther Bothe thumb picture
Walther Bothe

"for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"

Igor Y. Tamm thumb picture
Igor Y. Tamm

"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"

Kai M. Siegbahn thumb picture
Kai M. Siegbahn

"for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"

David J. Gross thumb picture
David J. Gross

"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"

Otto Wallach thumb picture
Otto Wallach

"in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"

Kenichi Fukui thumb picture
Kenichi Fukui

"for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"

Bruce Merrifield thumb picture
Bruce Merrifield

"for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix"

Robert F. Curl Jr. thumb picture
Robert F. Curl Jr.

"for their discovery of fullerenes"

Ryoji Noyori thumb picture
Ryoji Noyori

"for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions"

Robert H. Grubbs thumb picture
Robert H. Grubbs

"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"

Camillo Golgi thumb picture
Camillo Golgi

"in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"

Ilya Mechnikov thumb picture
Ilya Mechnikov

"in recognition of their work on immunity"

Charles Richet thumb picture
Charles Richet

"in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis"

Otto Loewi thumb picture
Otto Loewi

"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"

André Lwoff thumb picture
André Lwoff

"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"

Max Delbrück thumb picture
Max Delbrück

"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"

Günter Blobel thumb picture
Günter Blobel

"for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"

James E. Rothman thumb picture
James E. Rothman

"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"

Ivan Bunin thumb picture
Ivan Bunin

"for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing"

Giorgos Seferis thumb picture
Giorgos Seferis

"for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture"

Samuel Beckett thumb picture
Samuel Beckett

"for his writing, which - in new forms for the novel and drama - in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation"

J. M. Coetzee thumb picture
J. M. Coetzee

"who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider"

Kofi Annan thumb picture
Kofi Annan

"for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world"

Mohamed ElBaradei thumb picture
Mohamed ElBaradei

"for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way"

Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich thumb picture
Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich

"for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources"

James Tobin thumb picture
James Tobin

"for his analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions, employment, production and prices"

Robert M. Solow thumb picture
Robert M. Solow

"for his contributions to the theory of economic growth"

Harry M. Markowitz thumb picture
Harry M. Markowitz

"for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics"

Daniel L. McFadden thumb picture
Daniel L. McFadden

"for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice"

Age 64

Percy W. Bridgman thumb picture
Percy W. Bridgman

"for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics"

Alfred Kastler thumb picture
Alfred Kastler

"for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"

John Bardeen thumb picture
John Bardeen

"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"

Henry W. Kendall thumb picture
Henry W. Kendall

"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"

Claude Cohen-Tannoudji thumb picture
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji

"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"

Theodor W. Hänsch thumb picture
Theodor W. Hänsch

"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"

Makoto Kobayashi thumb picture
Makoto Kobayashi

"for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"

Arthur Harden thumb picture
Arthur Harden

"for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"

Luis Leloir thumb picture
Luis Leloir

"for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"

Paul J. Flory thumb picture
Paul J. Flory

"for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules"

Alan Heeger thumb picture
Alan Heeger

"for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"

Hideki Shirakawa thumb picture
Hideki Shirakawa

"for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"

Kurt Wüthrich thumb picture
Kurt Wüthrich

"for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution"

Willem Einthoven thumb picture
Willem Einthoven

"for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram"

Sir Alexander Fleming thumb picture
Sir Alexander Fleming

"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"

Edward C. Kendall thumb picture
Edward C. Kendall

"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"

Selman A. Waksman thumb picture
Selman A. Waksman

"for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"

Haldan K. Hartline thumb picture
Haldan K. Hartline

"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"

Jean Dausset thumb picture
Jean Dausset

"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"

Stanley Cohen thumb picture
Stanley Cohen

"for their discoveries of growth factors"

Sir James W. Black thumb picture
Sir James W. Black

"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"

Wangari Maathai thumb picture
Wangari Maathai

"for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace"

Milton Friedman thumb picture
Milton Friedman

"for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy"

Sir Arthur Lewis thumb picture
Sir Arthur Lewis

"for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries"

Reinhard Selten thumb picture
Reinhard Selten

"for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"

Edward C. Prescott thumb picture
Edward C. Prescott

"for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles"

Age 65

Frits Zernike thumb picture
Frits Zernike

"for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"

David M. Lee thumb picture
David M. Lee

"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"

Anthony J. Leggett thumb picture
Anthony J. Leggett

"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"

Otto Hahn thumb picture
Otto Hahn

"for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei"

Karl Ziegler thumb picture
Karl Ziegler

"for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers"

Lars Onsager thumb picture
Lars Onsager

"for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes"

Charles B. Huggins thumb picture
Charles B. Huggins

"for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer"

Ulf von Euler thumb picture
Ulf von Euler

"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"

Randy W. Schekman thumb picture
Randy W. Schekman

"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"

John Galsworthy thumb picture
John Galsworthy

"for his distinguished art of narration which takes its highest form in The Forsyte Saga"

Yasser Arafat thumb picture
Yasser Arafat

"for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East"

Tjalling C. Koopmans thumb picture
Tjalling C. Koopmans

"for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources"

Amartya Sen thumb picture
Amartya Sen

"for his contributions to welfare economics"

Age 66

Louis Néel thumb picture
Louis Néel

"for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"

Leon M. Lederman thumb picture
Leon M. Lederman

"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"

Michael Levitt thumb picture
Michael Levitt

"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"

Hans Spemann thumb picture
Hans Spemann

"for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development"

Nikolaas Tinbergen thumb picture
Nikolaas Tinbergen

"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"

Sune K. Bergström thumb picture
Sune K. Bergström

"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"

Sir Martin J. Evans thumb picture
Sir Martin J. Evans

"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"

Muhammad Yunus thumb picture
Muhammad Yunus

"for their efforts to create economic and social development from below"

Jan Tinbergen thumb picture
Jan Tinbergen

"for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes"

John F. Nash Jr. thumb picture
John F. Nash Jr.

"for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"

Age 67

Jack Steinberger thumb picture
Jack Steinberger

"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"

Hans G. Dehmelt thumb picture
Hans G. Dehmelt

"for the development of the ion trap technique"

Gerhard Herzberg thumb picture
Gerhard Herzberg

"for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals"

Herbert C. Brown thumb picture
Herbert C. Brown

"for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"

Jerome Karle thumb picture
Jerome Karle

"for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"

George A. Olah thumb picture
George A. Olah

"for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"

Avram Hershko thumb picture
Avram Hershko

"for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"

Thomas H. Morgan thumb picture
Thomas H. Morgan

"for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity"

Ragnar Granit thumb picture
Ragnar Granit

"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"

Erik Axel Karlfeldt thumb picture
Erik Axel Karlfeldt

"The poetry of Erik Axel Karlfeldt"

Luigi Pirandello thumb picture
Luigi Pirandello

"for his bold and ingenious revival of dramatic and scenic art"

François Mauriac thumb picture
François Mauriac

"for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life"

Pablo Neruda thumb picture
Pablo Neruda

"for a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a continent's destiny and dreams"

Wassily Leontief thumb picture
Wassily Leontief

"for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems"

Franco Modigliani thumb picture
Franco Modigliani

"for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets"

James M. Buchanan Jr. thumb picture
James M. Buchanan Jr.

"for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making"

Merton H. Miller thumb picture
Merton H. Miller

"for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics"

Robert W. Fogel thumb picture
Robert W. Fogel

"for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change"

Robert A. Mundell thumb picture
Robert A. Mundell

"for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas"

Robert J. Shiller thumb picture
Robert J. Shiller

"for their empirical analysis of asset prices"

Age 68

Georges Charpak thumb picture
Georges Charpak

"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"

Martin L. Perl thumb picture
Martin L. Perl

"for the discovery of the tau lepton"

Martinus J.G. Veltman thumb picture
Martinus J.G. Veltman

"for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"

Peter Grünberg thumb picture
Peter Grünberg

"for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance"

Toshihide Maskawa thumb picture
Toshihide Maskawa

"for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"

Serge Haroche thumb picture
Serge Haroche

"for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"

David J. Wineland thumb picture
David J. Wineland

"for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"

Henry Taube thumb picture
Henry Taube

"for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes"

Herbert A. Hauptman thumb picture
Herbert A. Hauptman

"for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"

Donald J. Cram thumb picture
Donald J. Cram

"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"

F. Sherwood Rowland thumb picture
F. Sherwood Rowland

"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"

Theodor Kocher thumb picture
Theodor Kocher

"for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"

Sir Frederick Hopkins thumb picture
Sir Frederick Hopkins

"for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins"

Walter Hess thumb picture
Walter Hess

"for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs"

Roger W. Sperry thumb picture
Roger W. Sperry

"for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres"

J. Robin Warren thumb picture
J. Robin Warren

"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"

Ralph M. Steinman thumb picture
Ralph M. Steinman

"for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity"

Henri Bergson thumb picture
Henri Bergson

"in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented"

Boris Pasternak thumb picture
Boris Pasternak

"for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition"

Miguel Angel Asturias thumb picture
Miguel Angel Asturias

"for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America"

Odysseus Elytis thumb picture
Odysseus Elytis

"for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man's struggle for freedom and creativeness"

Nadine Gordimer thumb picture
Nadine Gordimer

"who through her magnificent epic writing has - in the words of Alfred Nobel - been of very great benefit to humanity"

Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio thumb picture
Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio

"author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization"

John R. Hicks thumb picture
John R. Hicks

"for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory"

Daniel Kahneman thumb picture
Daniel Kahneman

"for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty"

Thomas J. Sargent thumb picture
Thomas J. Sargent

"for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy"

Age 69

Albert Fert thumb picture
Albert Fert

"for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance"

Jaroslav Heyrovsky thumb picture
Jaroslav Heyrovsky

"for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis"

Vladimir Prelog thumb picture
Vladimir Prelog

"for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions"

Rudolph A. Marcus thumb picture
Rudolph A. Marcus

"for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"

Thomas A. Steitz thumb picture
Thomas A. Steitz

"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"

Robert J. Lefkowitz thumb picture
Robert J. Lefkowitz

"for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"

Martin Rodbell thumb picture
Martin Rodbell

"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"

George Bernard Shaw thumb picture
George Bernard Shaw

"for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty"

Hermann Hesse thumb picture
Hermann Hesse

"for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style"

Ivo Andric thumb picture
Ivo Andric

"for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country"

Yasunari Kawabata thumb picture
Yasunari Kawabata

"for his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the essence of the Japanese mind"

Czeslaw Milosz thumb picture
Czeslaw Milosz

"who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man's exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts"

V. S. Naipaul thumb picture
V. S. Naipaul

"for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories"

Patrick Modiano thumb picture
Patrick Modiano

"for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation"

Clive W.J. Granger thumb picture
Clive W.J. Granger

"for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends (cointegration)"

Christopher A. Sims thumb picture
Christopher A. Sims

"for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy"

Age 70

Zhores I. Alferov thumb picture
Zhores I. Alferov

"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics"

Adolf von Baeyer thumb picture
Adolf von Baeyer

"in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"

Robert S. Mulliken thumb picture
Robert S. Mulliken

"for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method"

Ronald G.W. Norrish thumb picture
Ronald G.W. Norrish

"for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"

Ada E. Yonath thumb picture
Ada E. Yonath

"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"

Dan Shechtman thumb picture
Dan Shechtman

"for the discovery of quasicrystals"

Julius Wagner-Jauregg thumb picture
Julius Wagner-Jauregg

"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica"

Joseph Erlanger thumb picture
Joseph Erlanger

"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"

Konrad Lorenz thumb picture
Konrad Lorenz

"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"

Gertrude B. Elion thumb picture
Gertrude B. Elion

"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"

E. Donnall Thomas thumb picture
E. Donnall Thomas

"for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"

Sir Peter Mansfield thumb picture
Sir Peter Mansfield

"for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"

Mario R. Capecchi thumb picture
Mario R. Capecchi

"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"

Jules A. Hoffmann thumb picture
Jules A. Hoffmann

"for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"

Harry Martinson thumb picture
Harry Martinson

"for writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos"

Simon Kuznets thumb picture
Simon Kuznets

"for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development"

James E. Meade thumb picture
James E. Meade

"for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements"

Peter A. Diamond thumb picture
Peter A. Diamond

"for their analysis of markets with search frictions"

Age 71

Dennis Gabor thumb picture
Dennis Gabor

"for his invention and development of the holographic method"

Riccardo Giacconi thumb picture
Riccardo Giacconi

"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"

John L. Hall thumb picture
John L. Hall

"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"

Gerhard Ertl thumb picture
Gerhard Ertl

"for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces"

Christiaan Eijkman thumb picture
Christiaan Eijkman

"for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin"

Joseph E. Murray thumb picture
Joseph E. Murray

"for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"

Eric R. Kandel thumb picture
Eric R. Kandel

"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"

Bjřrnstjerne Bjřrnson thumb picture
Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson

"as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit"

Giosuč Carducci thumb picture
Giosuè Carducci

"not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces"

Johannes V. Jensen thumb picture
Johannes V. Jensen

"for the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with which is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly creative style"

Dario Fo thumb picture
Dario Fo

"who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden"

Shimon Peres thumb picture
Shimon Peres

"for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East"

Martti Ahtisaari thumb picture
Martti Ahtisaari

"for his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts"

George J. Stigler thumb picture
George J. Stigler

"for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation"

Richard Stone thumb picture
Richard Stone

"for having made fundamental contributions to the development of systems of national accounts and hence greatly improved the basis for empirical economic analysis"

Dale T. Mortensen thumb picture
Dale T. Mortensen

"for their analysis of markets with search frictions"

Age 72

Max Born thumb picture
Max Born

"for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"

Sir Nevill F. Mott thumb picture
Sir Nevill F. Mott

"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"

William A. Fowler thumb picture
William A. Fowler

"for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe"

Herbert Kroemer thumb picture
Herbert Kroemer

"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics"

Hermann Staudinger thumb picture
Hermann Staudinger

"for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry"

Odd Hassel thumb picture
Odd Hassel

"for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"

Edmond H. Fischer thumb picture
Edmond H. Fischer

"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"

Harald zur Hausen thumb picture
Harald zur Hausen

"for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer"

José Echegaray thumb picture
José Echegaray

"in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama"

William Golding thumb picture
William Golding

"for his novels which, with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today"

Claude Simon thumb picture
Claude Simon

"who in his novel combines the poet's and the painter's creativeness with a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition"

Günter Grass thumb picture
Günter Grass

"whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history"

Yitzhak Rabin thumb picture
Yitzhak Rabin

"for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East"

Age 73

Johannes Diderik van der Waals thumb picture
Johannes Diderik van der Waals

"for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids"

Subramanyan Chandrasekhar thumb picture
Subramanyan Chandrasekhar

"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars"

John Pople thumb picture
John Pople

"for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry"

Alan G. MacDiarmid thumb picture
Alan G. MacDiarmid

"for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"

Arieh Warshel thumb picture
Arieh Warshel

"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"

Niels K. Jerne thumb picture
Niels K. Jerne

"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"

Saint-John Perse thumb picture
Saint-John Perse

"for the soaring flight and the evocative imagery of his poetry which in a visionary fashion reflects the conditions of our time"

Camilo José Cela thumb picture
Camilo José Cela

"for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man's vulnerability"

Wislawa Szymborska thumb picture
Wislawa Szymborska

"for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality"

Imre Kertész thumb picture
Imre Kertész

"for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history"

Ellen Johnson Sirleaf thumb picture
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf

"for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work"

Douglass C. North thumb picture
Douglass C. North

"for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change"

Edmund S. Phelps thumb picture
Edmund S. Phelps

"for his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy"

Age 74

Norman F. Ramsey thumb picture
Norman F. Ramsey

"for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks"

Otto Diels thumb picture
Otto Diels

"for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis"

Edwin G. Krebs thumb picture
Edwin G. Krebs

"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"

Paul C. Lauterbur thumb picture
Paul C. Lauterbur

"for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"

Frédéric Mistral thumb picture
Frédéric Mistral

"in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist"

Carl Spitteler thumb picture
Carl Spitteler

"in special appreciation of his epic, Olympian Spring"

Eyvind Johnson thumb picture
Eyvind Johnson

"for a narrative art, far-seeing in lands and ages, in the service of freedom"

Isaac Bashevis Singer thumb picture
Isaac Bashevis Singer

"for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life"

Mario Vargas Llosa thumb picture
Mario Vargas Llosa

"for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance, revolt, and defeat"

Ragnar Frisch thumb picture
Ragnar Frisch

"for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes"

John C. Harsanyi thumb picture
John C. Harsanyi

"for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"

Eugene F. Fama thumb picture
Eugene F. Fama

"for their empirical analysis of asset prices"

Age 75

Alexei A. Abrikosov thumb picture
Alexei A. Abrikosov

"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"

Walter Kohn thumb picture
Walter Kohn

"for his development of the density-functional theory"

Yves Chauvin thumb picture
Yves Chauvin

"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"

Ei-ichi Negishi thumb picture
Ei-ichi Negishi

"for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis"

Sir Charles Sherrington thumb picture
Sir Charles Sherrington

"for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"

Egas Moniz thumb picture
Egas Moniz

"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses"

Albert Claude thumb picture
Albert Claude

"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"

Paul Greengard thumb picture
Paul Greengard

"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"

Sydney Brenner thumb picture
Sydney Brenner

"for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"

John O'Keefe thumb picture
John O'Keefe

"for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain"

Juan Ramón Jiménez thumb picture
Juan Ramón Jiménez

"for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity"

Nelly Sachs thumb picture
Nelly Sachs

"for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength"

Harold Pinter thumb picture
Harold Pinter

"who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms"

Nelson Mandela thumb picture
Nelson Mandela

"for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa"

Kim Dae-jung thumb picture
Kim Dae-jung

"for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular"

Friedrich August von Hayek thumb picture
Friedrich August von Hayek

"for their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena"

Vernon L. Smith thumb picture
Vernon L. Smith

"for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms"

Robert J. Aumann thumb picture
Robert J. Aumann

"for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis"

Age 76

Wolfgang Paul thumb picture
Wolfgang Paul

"for the development of the ion trap technique"

Bertram N. Brockhouse thumb picture
Bertram N. Brockhouse

"for the development of neutron spectroscopy"

Masatoshi Koshiba thumb picture
Masatoshi Koshiba

"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"

Charles K. Kao thumb picture
Charles K. Kao

"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication"

Luc Montagnier thumb picture
Luc Montagnier

"for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"

Elias Canetti thumb picture
Elias Canetti

"for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power"

Octavio Paz thumb picture
Octavio Paz

"for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity"

José Saramago thumb picture
José Saramago

"who with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusory reality"

Gunnar Myrdal thumb picture
Gunnar Myrdal

"for their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena"

Elinor Ostrom thumb picture
Elinor Ostrom

"for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons"

Age 77

Frederick Reines thumb picture
Frederick Reines

"for the detection of the neutrino"

Jack S. Kilby thumb picture
Jack S. Kilby

"for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"

George D. Snell thumb picture
George D. Snell

"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"

Rita Levi-Montalcini thumb picture
Rita Levi-Montalcini

"for their discoveries of growth factors"

Edward B. Lewis thumb picture
Edward B. Lewis

"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"

Arvid Carlsson thumb picture
Arvid Carlsson

"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"

Anatole France thumb picture
Anatole France

"in recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, grace, and a true Gallic temperament"

Naguib Mahfouz thumb picture
Naguib Mahfouz

"who, through works rich in nuance - now clear-sightedly realistic, now evocatively ambiguous - has formed an Arabian narrative art that applies to all mankind"

Theodore W. Schultz thumb picture
Theodore W. Schultz

"for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries"

Maurice Allais thumb picture
Maurice Allais

"for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources"

Oliver E. Williamson thumb picture
Oliver E. Williamson

"for his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm"

Age 78

John H. van Vleck thumb picture
John H. van Vleck

"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"

Irwin Rose thumb picture
Irwin Rose

"for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"

André Gide thumb picture
André Gide

"for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight"

Bertrand Russell thumb picture
Bertrand Russell

"in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought"

Shmuel Agnon thumb picture
Shmuel Agnon

"for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people"

Jimmy Carter thumb picture
Jimmy Carter

"for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development"

Bertil Ohlin thumb picture
Bertil Ohlin

"for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements"

Trygve Haavelmo thumb picture
Trygve Haavelmo

"for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and his analyses of simultaneous economic structures"

Age 79

Clifford G. Shull thumb picture
Clifford G. Shull

"for the development of the neutron diffraction technique"

George E. Smith thumb picture
George E. Smith

"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit - the CCD sensor"

Paul D. Boyer thumb picture
Paul D. Boyer

"for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"

Jens C. Skou thumb picture
Jens C. Skou

"for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase"

Richard F. Heck thumb picture
Richard F. Heck

"for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis"

Sir John B. Gurdon thumb picture
Sir John B. Gurdon

"for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"

Winston Churchill thumb picture
Winston Churchill

"for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values"

Eugenio Montale thumb picture
Eugenio Montale

"for his distinctive poetry which, with great artistic sensitivity, has interpreted human values under the sign of an outlook on life with no illusions"

Vicente Aleixandre thumb picture
Vicente Aleixandre

"for a creative poetic writing which illuminates man's condition in the cosmos and in present-day society, at the same time representing the great renewal of the traditions of Spanish poetry between the wars"

Age 80

Ernst Ruska thumb picture
Ernst Ruska

"for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope"

Roy J. Glauber thumb picture
Roy J. Glauber

"for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"

Osamu Shimomura thumb picture
Osamu Shimomura

"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"

Akira Suzuki thumb picture
Akira Suzuki

"for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis"

Paul Heyse thumb picture
Paul Heyse

"as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories"

Tomas Tranströmer thumb picture
Tomas Tranströmer

"because, through his condensed, translucent images, he gives us fresh access to reality"

Age 81

François Englert thumb picture
François Englert

"for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"

Barbara McClintock thumb picture
Barbara McClintock

"for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"

Ronald H. Coase thumb picture
Ronald H. Coase

"for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy"

Age 82

Georg Wittig thumb picture
Georg Wittig

"for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"

Robert F. Furchgott thumb picture
Robert F. Furchgott

"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"

Oliver Smithies thumb picture
Oliver Smithies

"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"

Alice Munro thumb picture
Alice Munro

"master of the contemporary short story"

William Vickrey thumb picture
William Vickrey

"for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information"

Age 83

Charles J. Pedersen thumb picture
Charles J. Pedersen

"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"

Martin Karplus thumb picture
Martin Karplus

"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"

George H. Hitchings thumb picture
George H. Hitchings

"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"

Jaroslav Seifert thumb picture
Jaroslav Seifert

"for his poetry which endowed with freshness, sensuality and rich inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man"

Age 84

Pyotr Kapitsa thumb picture
Pyotr Kapitsa

"for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"

Peter Higgs thumb picture
Peter Higgs

"for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"

William S. Knowles thumb picture
William S. Knowles

"for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions"

Thomas C. Schelling thumb picture
Thomas C. Schelling

"for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis"

Age 85

Willard S. Boyle thumb picture
Willard S. Boyle

"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit - the CCD sensor"

Isamu Akasaki thumb picture
Isamu Akasaki

"for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources"

John B. Fenn thumb picture
John B. Fenn

"for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules"

Robert G. Edwards thumb picture
Robert G. Edwards

"for the development of in vitro fertilization"

Theodor Mommsen thumb picture
Theodor Mommsen

"the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A history of Rome"

Age 86

Age 87

Vitaly L. Ginzburg thumb picture
Vitaly L. Ginzburg

"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"

Yoichiro Nambu thumb picture
Yoichiro Nambu

"for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics"

Peyton Rous thumb picture
Peyton Rous

"for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses"

Karl von Frisch thumb picture
Karl von Frisch

"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"

Joseph Rotblat thumb picture
Joseph Rotblat

"for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms"

Age 88

Raymond Davis Jr. thumb picture
Raymond Davis Jr.

"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"

Doris Lessing thumb picture
Doris Lessing

"that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny"

Age 89

Lloyd S. Shapley thumb picture
Lloyd S. Shapley

"for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design"

Age 90

Leonid Hurwicz thumb picture
Leonid Hurwicz

"for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory"

 

Share this:
To cite this page
MLA style: "Nobel Laureates by Age". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2014. Web. 24 Oct 2014. <http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/lists/age.html?images=yes>

Recommended:

On 27 November 1895 Alfred Nobel signed his last will in Paris.

 

Try to save some patients and learn about human blood types!

 

Discover the 2012 awarded research on stem cells and cell signalling.