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Lists of Nobel Prizes and Laureates

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Nobel Laureates and Country of Birth

Note: The country of birth refers to the name of the country at the time when the Nobel Laureates were born. For instance, to look for Nobel Laureates born in India you need to include also British India, British India (now Bangladesh) and India (now Pakistan). Austria, Germany, Poland and Russia are other examples of countries where the borders have changed. The list is based on information about Nobel Laureates awarded between 1901 and 2013.


Argentina

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947

Bernardo Houssay

"for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984

César Milstein

"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"

Australia

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915

Lawrence Bragg

"for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964

Aleksandr M. Prokhorov

"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1975

John Cornforth

"for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945

Sir Howard Florey

"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1960

Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet

"for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963

Sir John Eccles

"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996

Peter C. Doherty

"for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005

Barry J. Marshall

"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005

J. Robin Warren

"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009

Elizabeth H. Blackburn

"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"

Austria

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933

Erwin Schrödinger

"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1936

Victor F. Hess

"for his discovery of cosmic radiation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1945

Wolfgang Pauli

"for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1962

Max F. Perutz

"for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998

Walter Kohn

"for his development of the density-functional theory"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013

Martin Karplus

"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1914

Robert Bárány

"for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1927

Julius Wagner-Jauregg

"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973

Karl von Frisch

"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973

Konrad Lorenz

"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000

Eric R. Kandel

"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2004

Elfriede Jelinek

"for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1974

Friedrich August von Hayek

"for their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena"

Austria-Hungary (now Austria)

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1938

Richard Kuhn

"for his work on carotenoids and vitamins"

Austria-Hungary (now Bosnia and Herzegovina)

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1975

Vladimir Prelog

"for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions"

Austria-Hungary (now Croatia)

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1939

Leopold Ruzicka

"for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes"

Austria-Hungary (now Czech Republic)

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1959

Jaroslav Heyrovsky

"for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947

Carl Cori

"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947

Gerty Cori

"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1984

Jaroslav Seifert

"for his poetry which endowed with freshness, sensuality and rich inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man"

Austria-Hungary (now Hungary)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963

Eugene Wigner

"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1943

George de Hevesy

"for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1937

Albert Szent-Györgyi

"for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid"

Austria-Hungary (now Poland)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1944

Isidor Isaac Rabi

"for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"

Austria-Hungary (now Slovenia)

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1923

Fritz Pregl

"for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances"

Austria-Hungary (now Ukraine)

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1966

Shmuel Agnon

"for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people"

Austrian Empire (now Austria)

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1925

Richard Zsigmondy

"for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930

Karl Landsteiner

"for his discovery of human blood groups"

Austrian Empire (now Czech Republic)

Austrian Empire (now Italy)

Bavaria (now Germany)

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1907

Eduard Buchner

"for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation"

Belgium

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013

François Englert

"for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005

Yves Chauvin

"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1919

Jules Bordet

"for his discoveries relating to immunity"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1938

Corneille Heymans

"for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974

Albert Claude

"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1911

Maurice Maeterlinck

"in appreciation of his many-sided literary activities, and especially of his dramatic works, which are distinguished by a wealth of imagination and by a poetic fancy, which reveals, sometimes in the guise of a fairy tale, a deep inspiration, while in a mysterious way they appeal to the readers' own feelings and stimulate their imaginations"

Bosnia (now Bosnia and Herzegovina)

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1961

Ivo Andric

"for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country"

Brazil

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1960

Peter Medawar

"for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"

British India (now Bangladesh)

The Nobel Peace Prize 2006

Muhammad Yunus

"for their efforts to create economic and social development from below"

British India (now India)

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1907

Rudyard Kipling

"in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author"

British Mandate of Palestine (now Israel)

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009

Ada E. Yonath

"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2011

Dan Shechtman

"for the discovery of quasicrystals"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013

Arieh Warshel

"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1994

Yitzhak Rabin

"for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2002

Daniel Kahneman

"for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty"

British Protectorate of Palestine (now Israel)

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004

Aaron Ciechanover

"for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"

British West Indies (now Saint Lucia)

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1979

Sir Arthur Lewis

"for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries"

Bulgaria

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1981

Elias Canetti

"for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power"

Burma (now Myanmar)

The Nobel Peace Prize 1991

Aung San Suu Kyi

"for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights"

Canada

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990

Richard E. Taylor

"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1994

Bertram N. Brockhouse

"for the development of neutron spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009

Willard S. Boyle

"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit - the CCD sensor"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1949

William F. Giauque

"for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1983

Henry Taube

"for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1989

Sidney Altman

"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1992

Rudolph A. Marcus

"for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966

Charles B. Huggins

"for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981

David H. Hubel

"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011

Ralph M. Steinman

"for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1976

Saul Bellow

"for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2013

Alice Munro

"master of the contemporary short story"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1996

William Vickrey

"for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1997

Myron S. Scholes

"for a new method to determine the value of derivatives"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1999

Robert A. Mundell

"for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas"

Chile

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1945

Gabriela Mistral

"for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1971

Pablo Neruda

"for a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a continent's destiny and dreams"

China

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956

Walter H. Brattain

"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1957

Chen Ning Yang

"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1957

Tsung-Dao Lee

"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998

Daniel C. Tsui

"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009

Charles K. Kao

"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010

Ei-ichi Negishi

"for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992

Edmond H. Fischer

"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2000

Gao Xingjian

"for an æuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2012

Mo Yan

"who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary"

The Nobel Peace Prize 2010

Liu Xiaobo

"for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China"

Colombia

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1982

Gabriel García Márquez

"for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent's life and conflicts"

Costa Rica

The Nobel Peace Prize 1987

Oscar Arias Sánchez

"for his work for peace in Central America, efforts which led to the accord signed in Guatemala on August 7 this year"

Crete (now Greece)

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1979

Odysseus Elytis

"for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man's struggle for freedom and creativeness"

Cyprus

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2010

Christopher A. Pissarides

"for their analysis of markets with search frictions"

Czechoslovakia (now Czech Republic)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007

Peter Grünberg

"for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance"

Denmark

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1922

Niels Bohr

"for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975

Aage N. Bohr

"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997

Jens C. Skou

"for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1920

August Krogh

"for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1926

Johannes Fibiger

"for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1917

Karl Gjellerup

"for his varied and rich poetry, which is inspired by lofty ideals"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1917

Henrik Pontoppidan

"for his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1928

Sigrid Undset

"principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1944

Johannes V. Jensen

"for the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with which is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly creative style"

East Friesland (now Germany)

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1908

Rudolf Eucken

"in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life"

East Timor

The Nobel Peace Prize 1996

Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo

"for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1996

José Ramos-Horta

"for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor"

Egypt

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1964

Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin

"for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1999

Ahmed Zewail

"for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1988

Naguib Mahfouz

"who, through works rich in nuance - now clear-sightedly realistic, now evocatively ambiguous - has formed an Arabian narrative art that applies to all mankind"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1994

Yasser Arafat

"for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East"

The Nobel Peace Prize 2005

Mohamed ElBaradei

"for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way"

Faroe Islands (Denmark)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903

Niels Ryberg Finsen

"in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science"

Finland (now Russia)

The Nobel Peace Prize 2008

Martti Ahtisaari

"for his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts"

France

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903

Henri Becquerel

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903

Pierre Curie

"in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1926

Jean Baptiste Perrin

"for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1929

Louis de Broglie

"for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1970

Louis Néel

"for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1991

Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

"for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007

Albert Fert

"for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1906

Henri Moissan

"in recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace called after him"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1912

Victor Grignard

"for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1912

Paul Sabatier

"for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent years"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1913

Alfred Werner

"in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1935

Frédéric Joliot

"in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1935

Irène Joliot-Curie

"in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1970

Luis Leloir

"for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987

Jean-Marie Lehn

"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1907

Alphonse Laveran

"in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1912

Alexis Carrel

"in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1913

Charles Richet

"in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956

André F. Cournand

"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965

François Jacob

"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965

André Lwoff

"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965

Jacques Monod

"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977

Roger Guillemin

"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980

Jean Dausset

"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi

"for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008

Luc Montagnier

"for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1901

Sully Prudhomme

"in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart and intellect"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1904

Frédéric Mistral

"in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1915

Romain Rolland

"as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1921

Anatole France

"in recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, grace, and a true Gallic temperament"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1927

Henri Bergson

"in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1937

Roger Martin du Gard

"for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novel-cycle Les Thibault"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1947

André Gide

"for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1952

François Mauriac

"for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1964

Jean-Paul Sartre

"for his work which, rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom and the quest for truth, has exerted a far-reaching influence on our age"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2008

Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio

"author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1983

Gerard Debreu

"for having incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory and for his rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1988

Maurice Allais

"for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources"

Free City of Danzig (now Poland)

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1999

Günter Grass

"whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history"

French Algeria (now Algeria)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997

Claude Cohen-Tannoudji

"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1957

Albert Camus

"for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times"

German-occupied Poland (now Poland)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1985

Klaus von Klitzing

"for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"

Germany

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1914

Max von Laue

"for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1919

Johannes Stark

"for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921

Albert Einstein

"for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925

James Franck

"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925

Gustav Hertz

"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1932

Werner Heisenberg

"for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1954

Walther Bothe

"for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1955

Polykarp Kusch

"for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1961

Rudolf Mössbauer

"for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963

J. Hans D. Jensen

"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978

Arno Penzias

"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986

Ernst Ruska

"for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988

Jack Steinberger

"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989

Wolfgang Paul

"for the development of the ion trap technique"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000

Herbert Kroemer

"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005

Theodor W. Hänsch

"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1915

Richard Willstätter

"for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1927

Heinrich Wieland

"for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1928

Adolf Windaus

"for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1929

Hans von Euler-Chelpin

"for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1930

Hans Fischer

"for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931

Carl Bosch

"in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1944

Otto Hahn

"for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1950

Otto Diels

"for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1953

Hermann Staudinger

"for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1963

Karl Ziegler

"for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967

Manfred Eigen

"for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1971

Gerhard Herzberg

"for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1973

Ernst Otto Fischer

"for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1979

Georg Wittig

"for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986

John C. Polanyi

"for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1988

Johann Deisenhofer

"for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1988

Robert Huber

"for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2007

Gerhard Ertl

"for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905

Robert Koch

"for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922

Otto Meyerhof

"for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1931

Otto Warburg

"for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936

Otto Loewi

"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945

Ernst B. Chain

"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953

Hans Krebs

"for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956

Werner Forssmann

"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964

Feodor Lynen

"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969

Max Delbrück

"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970

Sir Bernard Katz

"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984

Georges J.F. Köhler

"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991

Erwin Neher

"for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991

Bert Sakmann

"for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995

Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard

"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008

Harald zur Hausen

"for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013

Thomas C. Südhof

"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1929

Thomas Mann

"principally for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1946

Hermann Hesse

"for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1966

Nelly Sachs

"for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1972

Heinrich Böll

"for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2005

Robert J. Aumann

"for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis"

Germany (now France)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1966

Alfred Kastler

"for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1967

Hans Bethe

"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"

Germany (now Poland)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1943

Otto Stern

"for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1954

Max Born

"for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963

Maria Goeppert Mayer

"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931

Friedrich Bergius

"in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1939

Gerhard Domagk

"for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964

Konrad Bloch

"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999

Günter Blobel

"for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1994

Reinhard Selten

"for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"

Germany (now Russia)

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1910

Otto Wallach

"in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953

Fritz Lipmann

"for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"

Gold Coast (now Ghana)

The Nobel Peace Prize 2001

Kofi Annan

"for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world"

Guadeloupe Island

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1960

Saint-John Perse

"for the soaring flight and the evocative imagery of his poetry which in a visionary fashion reflects the conditions of our time"

Guatemala

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1967

Miguel Angel Asturias

"for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1992

Rigoberta Menchú Tum

"in recognition of her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples"

Hesse-Kassel (now Germany)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909

Ferdinand Braun

"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"

Hungary

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1971

Dennis Gabor

"for his invention and development of the holographic method"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1994

George A. Olah

"for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004

Avram Hershko

"for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1961

Georg von Békésy

"for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2002

Imre Kertész

"for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1994

John C. Harsanyi

"for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"

Hungary (now Slovakia)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1905

Philipp Lenard

"for his work on cathode rays"

Iceland

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1955

Halldór Laxness

"for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland"

India

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930

Sir Venkata Raman

"for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009

Venkatraman Ramakrishnan

"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902

Ronald Ross

"for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968

H. Gobind Khorana

"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1913

Rabindranath Tagore

"because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1998

Amartya Sen

"for his contributions to welfare economics"

India (now Pakistan)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979

Abdus Salam

"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1983

Subramanyan Chandrasekhar

"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars"

Iran

The Nobel Peace Prize 2003

Shirin Ebadi

"for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children"

Ireland

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1951

Ernest T.S. Walton

"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1923

William Butler Yeats

"for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1925

George Bernard Shaw

"for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1969

Samuel Beckett

"for his writing, which - in new forms for the novel and drama - in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation"

Italy

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909

Guglielmo Marconi

"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1938

Enrico Fermi

"for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1959

Emilio Segrè

"for their discovery of the antiproton"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1984

Carlo Rubbia

"for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002

Riccardo Giacconi

"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1963

Giulio Natta

"for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906

Camillo Golgi

"in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969

Salvador E. Luria

"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975

Renato Dulbecco

"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007

Mario R. Capecchi

"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1926

Grazia Deledda

"for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1934

Luigi Pirandello

"for his bold and ingenious revival of dramatic and scenic art"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1959

Salvatore Quasimodo

"for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1975

Eugenio Montale

"for his distinctive poetry which, with great artistic sensitivity, has interpreted human values under the sign of an outlook on life with no illusions"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1997

Dario Fo

"who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1985

Franco Modigliani

"for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets"

Japan

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1949

Hideki Yukawa

"for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965

Sin-Itiro Tomonaga

"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973

Leo Esaki

"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002

Masatoshi Koshiba

"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008

Yoichiro Nambu

"for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008

Makoto Kobayashi

"for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008

Toshihide Maskawa

"for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1981

Kenichi Fukui

"for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000

Hideki Shirakawa

"for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001

Ryoji Noyori

"for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002

Koichi Tanaka

"for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008

Osamu Shimomura

"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010

Akira Suzuki

"for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1987

Susumu Tonegawa

"for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012

Shinya Yamanaka

"for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1968

Yasunari Kawabata

"for his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the essence of the Japanese mind"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1994

Kenzaburo Oe

"who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today"

Java, Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1924

Willem Einthoven

"for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram"

Kenya

The Nobel Peace Prize 2004

Wangari Maathai

"for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace"

Korea (now South Korea)

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987

Charles J. Pedersen

"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"

The Nobel Peace Prize 2000

Kim Dae-jung

"for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular"

Liberia

The Nobel Peace Prize 2011

Ellen Johnson Sirleaf

"for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work"

The Nobel Peace Prize 2011

Leymah Gbowee

"for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work"

Lithuania

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1982

Aaron Klug

"for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes"

Luxembourg

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1908

Gabriel Lippmann

"for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011

Jules A. Hoffmann

"for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"

Madagascar

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1985

Claude Simon

"who in his novel combines the poet's and the painter's creativeness with a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition"

Mecklenburg (now Germany)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1910

Albrecht Kossel

"in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances"

Mexico

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995

Mario J. Molina

"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1990

Octavio Paz

"for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity"

Morocco

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012

Serge Haroche

"for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"

New Zealand

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908

Ernest Rutherford

"for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000

Alan G. MacDiarmid

"for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962

Maurice Wilkins

"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"

Nigeria

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1986

Wole Soyinka

"who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashions the drama of existence"

Northern Ireland

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1995

Seamus Heaney

"for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1998

John Hume

"for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1998

David Trimble

"for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland"

Norway

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973

Ivar Giaever

"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1968

Lars Onsager

"for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1969

Odd Hassel

"for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1903

Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson

"as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1920

Knut Hamsun

"for his monumental work, Growth of the Soil"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1969

Ragnar Frisch

"for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1989

Trygve Haavelmo

"for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and his analyses of simultaneous economic structures"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2004

Finn E. Kydland

"for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles"

Ottoman Empire (now Republic of Macedonia)

Ottoman Empire (now Turkey)

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1963

Giorgos Seferis

"for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture"

Persia (now Iran)

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2007

Doris Lessing

"that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny"

Peru

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2010

Mario Vargas Llosa

"for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance, revolt, and defeat"

Poland

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1992

Georges Charpak

"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950

Tadeus Reichstein

"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1905

Henryk Sienkiewicz

"because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1996

Wislawa Szymborska

"for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality"

Poland (now Belarus)

The Nobel Peace Prize 1994

Shimon Peres

"for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East"

Poland (now Lithuania)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977

Andrew V. Schally

"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"

Poland (now Ukraine)

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1981

Roald Hoffmann

"for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"

Portugal

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949

Egas Moniz

"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1998

José Saramago

"who with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusory reality"

Prussia (now Germany)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1901

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989

Hans G. Dehmelt

"for the development of the ion trap technique"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1902

Emil Fischer

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1905

Adolf von Baeyer

"in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1920

Walther Nernst

"in recognition of his work in thermochemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1910

Paul Heyse

"as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1912

Gerhart Hauptmann

"primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art"

Prussia (now Poland)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1907

Albert A. Michelson

"for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1918

Fritz Haber

"for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1950

Kurt Alder

"for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901

Emil von Behring

"for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908

Paul Ehrlich

"in recognition of their work on immunity"

Prussia (now Russia)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1911

Wilhelm Wien

"for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat"

Romania

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974

George E. Palade

"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2009

Herta Müller

"who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed"

Russia

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958

Pavel A. Cherenkov

"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958

Igor Y. Tamm

"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958

Il´ja M. Frank

"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003

Vitaly L. Ginzburg

"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010

Andre Geim

"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010

Konstantin Novoselov

"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1937

Paul Karrer

"for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956

Nikolay Semenov

"for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1977

Ilya Prigogine

"for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1904

Ivan Pavlov

"in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1933

Ivan Bunin

"for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1958

Boris Pasternak

"for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1965

Mikhail Sholokhov

"for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic of the Don, he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian people"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1970

Alexandr Solzhenitsyn

"for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1973

Wassily Leontief

"for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2007

Leonid Hurwicz

"for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory"

Russian Empire (now Azerbaijan)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1962

Lev Landau

"for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"

Russian Empire (now Belarus)

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1971

Simon Kuznets

"for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development"

Russian Empire (now Finland)

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1945

Artturi Virtanen

"for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967

Ragnar Granit

"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1939

Frans Eemil Sillanpää

"for his deep understanding of his country's peasantry and the exquisite art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship with Nature"

Russian Empire (now Latvia)

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1909

Wilhelm Ostwald

"in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction"

Russian Empire (now Lithuania)

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1980

Czeslaw Milosz

"who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man's exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts"

Russian Empire (now Poland)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903

Marie Curie

"in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1911

Marie Curie

"in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1924

Wladyslaw Reymont

"for his great national epic, The Peasants"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1978

Isaac Bashevis Singer

"for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1995

Joseph Rotblat

"for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms"

Russian Empire (now Russia)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978

Pyotr Kapitsa

"for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1975

Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich

"for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources"

Russian Empire (now Ukraine)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908

Ilya Mechnikov

"in recognition of their work on immunity"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1952

Selman A. Waksman

"for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"

Saint Lucia

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1992

Derek Walcott

"for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment"

Schleswig (now Germany)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1918

Max Planck

"in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1902

Theodor Mommsen

"the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A history of Rome"

Scotland

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1927

C.T.R. Wilson

"for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1904

Sir William Ramsay

"in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1957

Lord Todd

"for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945

Sir Alexander Fleming

"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988

Sir James W. Black

"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1996

James A. Mirrlees

"for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information"

South Africa

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013

Michael Levitt

"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1951

Max Theiler

"for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1979

Allan M. Cormack

"for the development of computer assisted tomography"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002

Sydney Brenner

"for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1991

Nadine Gordimer

"who through her magnificent epic writing has - in the words of Alfred Nobel - been of very great benefit to humanity"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2003

J. M. Coetzee

"who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1993

Nelson Mandela

"for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1993

F.W. de Klerk

"for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa"

Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe)

Spain

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906

Santiago Ramón y Cajal

"in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959

Severo Ochoa

"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1904

José Echegaray

"in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1922

Jacinto Benavente

"for the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1956

Juan Ramón Jiménez

"for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1977

Vicente Aleixandre

"for a creative poetic writing which illuminates man's condition in the cosmos and in present-day society, at the same time representing the great renewal of the traditions of Spanish poetry between the wars"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1989

Camilo José Cela

"for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man's vulnerability"

Sweden

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1912

Gustaf Dalén

"for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1924

Manne Siegbahn

"for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1970

Hannes Alfvén

"for fundamental work and discoveries in magnetohydro-dynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981

Kai M. Siegbahn

"for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1903

Svante Arrhenius

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1926

The Svedberg

"for his work on disperse systems"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1948

Arne Tiselius

"for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1911

Allvar Gullstrand

"for his work on the dioptrics of the eye"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1955

Hugo Theorell

"for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970

Ulf von Euler

"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981

Torsten N. Wiesel

"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982

Sune K. Bergström

"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982

Bengt I. Samuelsson

"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000

Arvid Carlsson

"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1909

Selma Lagerlöf

"in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1916

Verner von Heidenstam

"in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1931

Erik Axel Karlfeldt

"The poetry of Erik Axel Karlfeldt"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1951

Pär Lagerkvist

"for the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions confronting mankind"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1974

Eyvind Johnson

"for a narrative art, far-seeing in lands and ages, in the service of freedom"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1974

Harry Martinson

"for writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2011

Tomas Tranströmer

"because, through his condensed, translucent images, he gives us fresh access to reality"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1974

Gunnar Myrdal

"for their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1977

Bertil Ohlin

"for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements"

Switzerland

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1920

Charles Edouard Guillaume

"in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1952

Felix Bloch

"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986

Heinrich Rohrer

"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1987

K. Alex Müller

"for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1991

Richard R. Ernst

"for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002

Kurt Wüthrich

"for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1909

Theodor Kocher

"for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1948

Paul Müller

"for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949

Walter Hess

"for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1957

Daniel Bovet

"for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978

Werner Arber

"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996

Rolf M. Zinkernagel

"for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1919

Carl Spitteler

"in special appreciation of his epic, Olympian Spring"

Taiwan

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986

Yuan T. Lee

"for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"

the Netherlands

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1902

Hendrik A. Lorentz

"in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1902

Pieter Zeeman

"in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1910

Johannes Diderik van der Waals

"for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1913

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes

"for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1953

Frits Zernike

"for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981

Nicolaas Bloembergen

"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1984

Simon van der Meer

"for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999

Gerardus 't Hooft

"for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999

Martinus J.G. Veltman

"for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1901

Jacobus H. van 't Hoff

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1936

Peter Debye

"for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995

Paul J. Crutzen

"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929

Christiaan Eijkman

"for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973

Nikolaas Tinbergen

"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1969

Jan Tinbergen

"for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1975

Tjalling C. Koopmans

"for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources"

Tibet (now People's Republic of China)

Trinidad

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2001

V. S. Naipaul

"for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories"

Turkey

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2006

Orhan Pamuk

"who in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures"

Tuscany (now Italy)

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1906

Giosuè Carducci

"not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces"

United Kingdom

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1904

Lord Rayleigh

"for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1906

J.J. Thomson

"in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915

William Bragg

"for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1917

Charles Glover Barkla

"for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1928

Owen Willans Richardson

"for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933

Paul A.M. Dirac

"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1935

James Chadwick

"for the discovery of the neutron"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1937

George Paget Thomson

"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1947

Edward V. Appleton

"for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1948

Patrick M.S. Blackett

"for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1950

Cecil Powell

"for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1951

John Cockcroft

"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956

William B. Shockley

"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973

Brian D. Josephson

"for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1974

Martin Ryle

"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1974

Antony Hewish

"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977

Sir Nevill F. Mott

"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003

Anthony J. Leggett

"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013

Peter Higgs

"for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1921

Frederick Soddy

"for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1922

Francis W. Aston

"for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1929

Arthur Harden

"for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1937

Norman Haworth

"for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1947

Sir Robert Robinson

"for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1952

Archer J.P. Martin

"for their invention of partition chromatography"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1952

Richard L.M. Synge

"for their invention of partition chromatography"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956

Sir Cyril Hinshelwood

"for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1958

Frederick Sanger

"for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1962

John C. Kendrew

"for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967

Ronald G.W. Norrish

"for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967

George Porter

"for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1969

Derek Barton

"for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1973

Geoffrey Wilkinson

"for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1978

Peter Mitchell

"for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1979

Herbert C. Brown

"for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980

Frederick Sanger

"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993

Michael Smith

"for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996

Sir Harold Kroto

"for their discovery of fullerenes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997

John E. Walker

"for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998

John Pople

"for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922

Archibald V. Hill

"for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929

Sir Frederick Hopkins

"for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1932

Edgar Adrian

"for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1932

Sir Charles Sherrington

"for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936

Sir Henry Dale

"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962

Francis Crick

"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963

Alan L. Hodgkin

"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963

Andrew F. Huxley

"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972

Rodney R. Porter

"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974

Christian de Duve

"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1979

Godfrey N. Hounsfield

"for the development of computer assisted tomography"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982

John R. Vane

"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984

Niels K. Jerne

"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001

Tim Hunt

"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001

Sir Paul Nurse

"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002

John E. Sulston

"for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003

Sir Peter Mansfield

"for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007

Oliver Smithies

"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007

Sir Martin J. Evans

"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009

Jack W. Szostak

"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2010

Robert G. Edwards

"for the development of in vitro fertilization"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012

Sir John B. Gurdon

"for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1932

John Galsworthy

"for his distinguished art of narration which takes its highest form in The Forsyte Saga"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1950

Bertrand Russell

"in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1953

Winston Churchill

"for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1973

Patrick White

"for an epic and psychological narrative art which has introduced a new continent into literature"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1983

William Golding

"for his novels which, with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2005

Harold Pinter

"who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1972

John R. Hicks

"for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1977

James E. Meade

"for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1984

Richard Stone

"for having made fundamental contributions to the development of systems of national accounts and hence greatly improved the basis for empirical economic analysis"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1991

Ronald H. Coase

"for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2003

Clive W.J. Granger

"for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends (cointegration)"

USA

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1923

Robert A. Millikan

"for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1927

Arthur H. Compton

"for his discovery of the effect named after him"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1936

Carl D. Anderson

"for his discovery of the positron"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1937

Clinton Davisson

"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1939

Ernest Lawrence

"for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1946

Percy W. Bridgman

"for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1952

E. M. Purcell

"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1955

Willis E. Lamb

"for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956

John Bardeen

"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1959

Owen Chamberlain

"for their discovery of the antiproton"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1960

Donald A. Glaser

"for the invention of the bubble chamber"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1961

Robert Hofstadter

"for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964

Charles H. Townes

"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965

Richard P. Feynman

"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965

Julian Schwinger

"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1968

Luis Alvarez

"for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1969

Murray Gell-Mann

"for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972

John Bardeen

"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972

Leon N. Cooper

"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972

Robert Schrieffer

"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975

Ben R. Mottelson

"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975

James Rainwater

"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1976

Burton Richter

"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1976

Samuel C.C. Ting

"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977

Philip W. Anderson

"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977

John H. van Vleck

"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978

Robert Woodrow Wilson

"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979

Sheldon Glashow

"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979

Steven Weinberg

"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1980

James Cronin

"for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1980

Val Fitch

"for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981

Arthur L. Schawlow

"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1982

Kenneth G. Wilson

"for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1983

William A. Fowler

"for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988

Leon M. Lederman

"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988

Melvin Schwartz

"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989

Norman F. Ramsey

"for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990

Jerome I. Friedman

"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990

Henry W. Kendall

"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1993

Russell A. Hulse

"for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1993

Joseph H. Taylor Jr.

"for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1994

Clifford G. Shull

"for the development of the neutron diffraction technique"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1995

Martin L. Perl

"for the discovery of the tau lepton"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1995

Frederick Reines

"for the detection of the neutrino"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996

David M. Lee

"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996

Douglas D. Osheroff

"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996

Robert C. Richardson

"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997

Steven Chu

"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997

William D. Phillips

"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998

Robert B. Laughlin

"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000

Jack S. Kilby

"for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001

Eric A. Cornell

"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001

Carl E. Wieman

"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002

Raymond Davis Jr.

"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004

David J. Gross

"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004

H. David Politzer

"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004

Frank Wilczek

"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005

Roy J. Glauber

"for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005

John L. Hall

"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006

John C. Mather

"for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006

George F. Smoot

"for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009

George E. Smith

"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit - the CCD sensor"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011

Saul Perlmutter

"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011

Adam G. Riess

"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011

Brian P. Schmidt

"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012

David J. Wineland

"for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1914

Theodore W. Richards

"in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1932

Irving Langmuir

"for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1934

Harold C. Urey

"for his discovery of heavy hydrogen"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946

James B. Sumner

"for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946

Wendell M. Stanley

"for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946

John H. Northrop

"for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951

Edwin M. McMillan

"for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951

Glenn T. Seaborg

"for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1954

Linus Pauling

"for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1955

Vincent du Vigneaud

"for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1960

Willard F. Libby

"for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1961

Melvin Calvin

"for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1965

Robert B. Woodward

"for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1966

Robert S. Mulliken

"for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972

Christian Anfinsen

"for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972

Stanford Moore

"for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972

William H. Stein

"for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1974

Paul J. Flory

"for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1976

William Lipscomb

"for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980

Paul Berg

"for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980

Walter Gilbert

"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1984

Bruce Merrifield

"for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1985

Herbert A. Hauptman

"for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1985

Jerome Karle

"for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986

Dudley R. Herschbach

"for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987

Donald J. Cram

"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1989

Thomas R. Cech

"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1990

Elias James Corey

"for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993

Kary B. Mullis

"for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995

F. Sherwood Rowland

"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996

Robert F. Curl Jr.

"for their discovery of fullerenes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996

Richard E. Smalley

"for their discovery of fullerenes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997

Paul D. Boyer

"for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000

Alan Heeger

"for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001

William S. Knowles

"for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001

K. Barry Sharpless

"for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002

John B. Fenn

"for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003

Peter Agre

"for the discovery of water channels"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003

Roderick MacKinnon

"for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004

Irwin Rose

"for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005

Robert H. Grubbs

"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005

Richard R. Schrock

"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006

Roger D. Kornberg

"for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008

Martin Chalfie

"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008

Roger Y. Tsien

"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009

Thomas A. Steitz

"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010

Richard F. Heck

"for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012

Robert J. Lefkowitz

"for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012

Brian K. Kobilka

"for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933

Thomas H. Morgan

"for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934

George R. Minot

"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934

William P. Murphy

"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934

George H. Whipple

"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1943

Edward A. Doisy

"for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944

Joseph Erlanger

"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944

Herbert S. Gasser

"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1946

Hermann J. Muller

"for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950

Edward C. Kendall

"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950

Philip S. Hench

"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954

John F. Enders

"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954

Frederick C. Robbins

"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954

Thomas H. Weller

"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956

Dickinson W. Richards

"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958

George Beadle

"for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958

Joshua Lederberg

"for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958

Edward Tatum

"for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959

Arthur Kornberg

"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962

James Watson

"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966

Peyton Rous

"for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967

Haldan K. Hartline

"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967

George Wald

"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968

Robert W. Holley

"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968

Marshall W. Nirenberg

"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969

Alfred D. Hershey

"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970

Julius Axelrod

"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1971

Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.

"for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972

Gerald M. Edelman

"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975

David Baltimore

"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975

Howard M. Temin

"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976

Baruch S. Blumberg

"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976

D. Carleton Gajdusek

"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977

Rosalyn Yalow

"for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978

Daniel Nathans

"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978

Hamilton O. Smith

"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980

George D. Snell

"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981

Roger W. Sperry

"for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1983

Barbara McClintock

"for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985

Michael S. Brown

"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985

Joseph L. Goldstein

"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986

Stanley Cohen

"for their discoveries of growth factors"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988

Gertrude B. Elion

"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988

George H. Hitchings

"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989

J. Michael Bishop

"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989

Harold E. Varmus

"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990

Joseph E. Murray

"for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990

E. Donnall Thomas

"for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992

Edwin G. Krebs

"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994

Alfred G. Gilman

"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994

Martin Rodbell

"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995

Edward B. Lewis

"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995

Eric F. Wieschaus

"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1997

Stanley B. Prusiner

"for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998

Robert F. Furchgott

"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998

Louis J. Ignarro

"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998

Ferid Murad

"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000

Paul Greengard

"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001

Leland H. Hartwell

"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002

H. Robert Horvitz

"for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003

Paul C. Lauterbur

"for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004

Richard Axel

"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004

Linda B. Buck

"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006

Andrew Z. Fire

"for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006

Craig C. Mello

"for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009

Carol W. Greider

"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011

Bruce A. Beutler

"for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013

James E. Rothman

"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013

Randy W. Schekman

"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1930

Sinclair Lewis

"for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1936

Eugene O'Neill

"for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1938

Pearl Buck

"for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1948

T.S. Eliot

"for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1949

William Faulkner

"for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1954

Ernest Hemingway

"for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1962

John Steinbeck

"for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1993

Toni Morrison

"who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1997

Jody Williams

"for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines"

The Nobel Peace Prize 2002

Jimmy Carter

"for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development"

The Nobel Peace Prize 2007

Al Gore

"for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change"

The Nobel Peace Prize 2009

Barack H. Obama

"for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1970

Paul A. Samuelson

"for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1972

Kenneth J. Arrow

"for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1976

Milton Friedman

"for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1978

Herbert A. Simon

"for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1979

Theodore W. Schultz

"for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1980

Lawrence R. Klein

"for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1981

James Tobin

"for his analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions, employment, production and prices"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1982

George J. Stigler

"for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1986

James M. Buchanan Jr.

"for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1987

Robert M. Solow

"for his contributions to the theory of economic growth"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1990

Harry M. Markowitz

"for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1990

Merton H. Miller

"for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1990

William F. Sharpe

"for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1992

Gary S. Becker

"for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1993

Robert W. Fogel

"for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1993

Douglass C. North

"for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1994

John F. Nash Jr.

"for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1995

Robert E. Lucas Jr.

"for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1997

Robert C. Merton

"for a new method to determine the value of derivatives"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2000

James J. Heckman

"for his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2000

Daniel L. McFadden

"for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2001

George A. Akerlof

"for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2001

A. Michael Spence

"for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2001

Joseph E. Stiglitz

"for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2002

Vernon L. Smith

"for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2003

Robert F. Engle III

"for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH)"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2004

Edward C. Prescott

"for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2005

Thomas C. Schelling

"for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2006

Edmund S. Phelps

"for his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2007

Eric S. Maskin

"for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2007

Roger B. Myerson

"for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2008

Paul Krugman

"for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2009

Elinor Ostrom

"for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2009

Oliver E. Williamson

"for his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2010

Peter A. Diamond

"for their analysis of markets with search frictions"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2010

Dale T. Mortensen

"for their analysis of markets with search frictions"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2011

Thomas J. Sargent

"for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2011

Christopher A. Sims

"for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2012

Lloyd S. Shapley

"for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2012

Alvin E. Roth

"for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2013

Eugene F. Fama

"for their empirical analysis of asset prices"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2013

Robert J. Shiller

"for their empirical analysis of asset prices"

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2013

Lars Peter Hansen

"for their empirical analysis of asset prices"

USSR (now Belarus)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000

Zhores I. Alferov

"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics"

USSR (now Russia)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964

Nicolay G. Basov

"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003

Alexei A. Abrikosov

"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1987

Joseph Brodsky

"for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1990

Mikhail Gorbachev

"for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community"

Venezuela

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980

Baruj Benacerraf

"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"

Vietnam

Württemberg (now Germany)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1935

Hans Spemann

"for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development"

West Germany (now Germany)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986

Gerd Binnig

"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1987

J. Georg Bednorz

"for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998

Horst L. Störmer

"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001

Wolfgang Ketterle

"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1988

Hartmut Michel

"for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"

Yemen

The Nobel Peace Prize 2011

Tawakkol Karman

"for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work"

 

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