Nobelprize.org
Lists of Nobel Prizes and Laureates

Medicine Laureates: Fields

All Nobel Laureates sorted by field. One Nobel Laureate may be listed under several fields.

anti-bacterial agents (4)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945

Sir Alexander Fleming

"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945

Ernst Boris Chain

"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945

Sir Howard Walter Florey

"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1952

Selman Abraham Waksman

"for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"

audiology (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1961

Georg von Békésy

"for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"

bacteriology (10)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901

Emil Adolf von Behring

"for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905

Robert Koch

"for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1939

Gerhard Domagk

"for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945

Sir Alexander Fleming

"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945

Ernst Boris Chain

"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945

Sir Howard Walter Florey

"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1952

Selman Abraham Waksman

"for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005

Barry J. Marshall

"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005

J. Robin Warren

"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"

biochemistry (29)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1910

Albrecht Kossel

"in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1943

Edward Adelbert Doisy

"for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945

Sir Alexander Fleming

"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945

Ernst Boris Chain

"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945

Sir Howard Walter Florey

"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947

Carl Ferdinand Cori

"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947

Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz

"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947

Bernardo Alberto Houssay

"for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950

Edward Calvin Kendall

"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950

Tadeus Reichstein

"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950

Philip Showalter Hench

"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953

Hans Adolf Krebs

"for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953

Fritz Albert Lipmann

"for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1955

Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell

"for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959

Severo Ochoa

"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959

Arthur Kornberg

"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964

Konrad Bloch

"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964

Feodor Lynen

"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977

Roger Guillemin

"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977

Andrew V. Schally

"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982

Sune K. Bergström

"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982

Bengt I. Samuelsson

"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982

John R. Vane

"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986

Stanley Cohen

"for their discoveries of growth factors"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986

Rita Levi-Montalcini

"for their discoveries of growth factors"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992

Edmond H. Fischer

"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992

Edwin G. Krebs

"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013

James E. Rothman

"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"

cardiovascular physiology (9)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1920

Schack August Steenberg Krogh

"for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1924

Willem Einthoven

"for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1938

Corneille Jean François Heymans

"for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956

André Frédéric Cournand

"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956

Werner Forssmann

"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956

Dickinson W. Richards

"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998

Robert F. Furchgott

"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998

Louis J. Ignarro

"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998

Ferid Murad

"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"

cell physiology (27)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1910

Albrecht Kossel

"in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1931

Otto Heinrich Warburg

"for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1937

Albert von Szent-Györgyi Nagyrápolt

"for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953

Hans Adolf Krebs

"for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953

Fritz Albert Lipmann

"for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963

Sir John Carew Eccles

"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963

Alan Lloyd Hodgkin

"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963

Andrew Fielding Huxley

"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1971

Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.

"for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974

Albert Claude

"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974

Christian de Duve

"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974

George E. Palade

"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986

Stanley Cohen

"for their discoveries of growth factors"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986

Rita Levi-Montalcini

"for their discoveries of growth factors"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991

Erwin Neher

"for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991

Bert Sakmann

"for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992

Edmond H. Fischer

"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992

Edwin G. Krebs

"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994

Alfred G. Gilman

"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994

Martin Rodbell

"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999

Günter Blobel

"for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001

Sir Paul M. Nurse

"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001

Leland H. Hartwell

"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001

Tim Hunt

"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013

James E. Rothman

"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013

Randy W. Schekman

"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013

Thomas C. Südhof

"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"

chemistry (7)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1910

Albrecht Kossel

"in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1943

Edward Adelbert Doisy

"for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1948

Paul Hermann Müller

"for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982

Sune K. Bergström

"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982

Bengt I. Samuelsson

"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982

John R. Vane

"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"

dermatology (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903

Niels Ryberg Finsen

"in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science"

developmental biology (3)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995

Edward B. Lewis

"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995

Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard

"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995

Eric F. Wieschaus

"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"

diagnostic imaging (4)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1979

Allan M. Cormack

"for the development of computer assisted tomography"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1979

Godfrey N. Hounsfield

"for the development of computer assisted tomography"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003

Paul C. Lauterbur

"for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003

Sir Peter Mansfield

"for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"

diagnostic techniques (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977

Rosalyn Yalow

"for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"

digestive physiology (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1904

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov

"in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged"

disease transmission (14)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902

Ronald Ross

"for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905

Robert Koch

"for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1926

Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger

"for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1948

Paul Hermann Müller

"for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1951

Max Theiler

"for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976

Baruch S. Blumberg

"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976

D. Carleton Gajdusek

"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1997

Stanley B. Prusiner

"for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005

Barry J. Marshall

"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005

J. Robin Warren

"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008

Harald zur Hausen

"for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi

"for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008

Luc Montagnier

"for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"

embryology (4)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1935

Hans Spemann

"for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995

Edward B. Lewis

"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995

Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard

"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995

Eric F. Wieschaus

"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"

endocrinology (12)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1909

Emil Theodor Kocher

"for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947

Bernardo Alberto Houssay

"for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950

Edward Calvin Kendall

"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950

Tadeus Reichstein

"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950

Philip Showalter Hench

"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966

Charles Brenton Huggins

"for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1971

Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.

"for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977

Roger Guillemin

"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977

Andrew V. Schally

"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977

Rosalyn Yalow

"for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"

epidemiology (4)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902

Ronald Ross

"for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976

Baruch S. Blumberg

"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976

D. Carleton Gajdusek

"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"

ethology (3)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973

Karl von Frisch

"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973

Konrad Lorenz

"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973

Nikolaas Tinbergen

"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"

gastroenterology (2)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005

Barry J. Marshall

"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005

J. Robin Warren

"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"

genetics (48)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933

Thomas Hunt Morgan

"for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1946

Hermann Joseph Muller

"for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958

George Wells Beadle

"for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958

Edward Lawrie Tatum

"for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958

Joshua Lederberg

"for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959

Severo Ochoa

"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959

Arthur Kornberg

"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962

Francis Harry Compton Crick

"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962

James Dewey Watson

"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962

Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins

"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965

François Jacob

"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965

André Lwoff

"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965

Jacques Monod

"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968

Robert W. Holley

"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968

Har Gobind Khorana

"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968

Marshall W. Nirenberg

"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969

Max Delbrück

"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969

Alfred D. Hershey

"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969

Salvador E. Luria

"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975

David Baltimore

"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975

Renato Dulbecco

"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975

Howard Martin Temin

"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978

Werner Arber

"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978

Daniel Nathans

"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978

Hamilton O. Smith

"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980

George D. Snell

"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1983

Barbara McClintock

"for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1993

Phillip A. Sharp

"for their discoveries of split genes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995

Edward B. Lewis

"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995

Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard

"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995

Eric F. Wieschaus

"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002

Sydney Brenner

"for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002

H. Robert Horvitz

"for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002

John E. Sulston

"for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004

Richard Axel

"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004

Linda B. Buck

"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006

Andrew Z. Fire

"for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006

Craig C. Mello

"for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007

Mario R. Capecchi

"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007

Sir Martin J. Evans

"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007

Oliver Smithies

"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009

Elizabeth H. Blackburn

"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009

Carol W. Greider

"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009

Jack W. Szostak

"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012

Sir John B. Gurdon

"for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012

Shinya Yamanaka

"for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013

Randy W. Schekman

"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"

hematology (4)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930

Karl Landsteiner

"for his discovery of human blood groups"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934

George Hoyt Whipple

"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934

George Richards Minot

"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934

William Parry Murphy

"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"

immunity (23)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901

Emil Adolf von Behring

"for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908

Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov

"in recognition of their work on immunity"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908

Paul Ehrlich

"in recognition of their work on immunity"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1913

Charles Robert Richet

"in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1919

Jules Bordet

"for his discoveries relating to immunity"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1960

Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet

"for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1960

Peter Brian Medawar

"for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972

Gerald M. Edelman

"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972

Rodney R. Porter

"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980

Baruj Benacerraf

"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980

Jean Dausset

"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980

George D. Snell

"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984

Niels K. Jerne

"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984

Georges J.F. Köhler

"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984

César Milstein

"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1987

Susumu Tonegawa

"for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996

Peter C. Doherty

"for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996

Rolf M. Zinkernagel

"for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi

"for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008

Luc Montagnier

"for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011

Bruce A. Beutler

"for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011

Jules A. Hoffmann

"for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011

Ralph M. Steinman

"for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity"

medical oncology (9)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1926

Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger

"for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966

Peyton Rous

"for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966

Charles Brenton Huggins

"for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975

David Baltimore

"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975

Renato Dulbecco

"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975

Howard Martin Temin

"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989

J. Michael Bishop

"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989

Harold E. Varmus

"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008

Harald zur Hausen

"for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer"

metabolism (21)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922

Archibald Vivian Hill

"for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922

Otto Fritz Meyerhof

"for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929

Christiaan Eijkman

"for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929

Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins

"for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1931

Otto Heinrich Warburg

"for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1937

Albert von Szent-Györgyi Nagyrápolt

"for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947

Carl Ferdinand Cori

"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947

Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz

"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947

Bernardo Alberto Houssay

"for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953

Hans Adolf Krebs

"for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953

Fritz Albert Lipmann

"for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964

Konrad Bloch

"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964

Feodor Lynen

"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1971

Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.

"for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977

Roger Guillemin

"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977

Andrew V. Schally

"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977

Rosalyn Yalow

"for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985

Michael S. Brown

"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985

Joseph L. Goldstein

"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"

microbiology (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1907

Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran

"in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases"

molecular biology (21)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959

Severo Ochoa

"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959

Arthur Kornberg

"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962

Francis Harry Compton Crick

"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962

James Dewey Watson

"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962

Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins

"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965

François Jacob

"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965

André Lwoff

"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965

Jacques Monod

"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968

Robert W. Holley

"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968

Har Gobind Khorana

"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968

Marshall W. Nirenberg

"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978

Werner Arber

"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978

Daniel Nathans

"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978

Hamilton O. Smith

"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1993

Phillip A. Sharp

"for their discoveries of split genes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001

Sir Paul M. Nurse

"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001

Leland H. Hartwell

"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001

Tim Hunt

"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006

Andrew Z. Fire

"for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006

Craig C. Mello

"for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"

muscle physiology (3)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1920

Schack August Steenberg Krogh

"for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922

Archibald Vivian Hill

"for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922

Otto Fritz Meyerhof

"for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"

neuroanatomy (2)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906

Camillo Golgi

"in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906

Santiago Ramón y Cajal

"in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"

neurophysiology (26)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906

Camillo Golgi

"in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906

Santiago Ramón y Cajal

"in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1927

Julius Wagner-Jauregg

"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1932

Sir Charles Scott Sherrington

"for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1932

Edgar Douglas Adrian

"for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936

Sir Henry Hallett Dale

"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936

Otto Loewi

"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944

Joseph Erlanger

"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944

Herbert Spencer Gasser

"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949

Walter Rudolf Hess

"for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949

Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz

"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963

Sir John Carew Eccles

"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963

Alan Lloyd Hodgkin

"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963

Andrew Fielding Huxley

"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970

Sir Bernard Katz

"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970

Ulf von Euler

"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970

Julius Axelrod

"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981

Roger W. Sperry

"for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981

David H. Hubel

"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981

Torsten N. Wiesel

"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000

Arvid Carlsson

"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000

Paul Greengard

"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000

Eric R. Kandel

"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004

Richard Axel

"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004

Linda B. Buck

"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013

Thomas C. Südhof

"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"

nutrition (2)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929

Christiaan Eijkman

"for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929

Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins

"for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins"

ocular physiology (6)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1911

Allvar Gullstrand

"for his work on the dioptrics of the eye"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967

Ragnar Granit

"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967

Haldan Keffer Hartline

"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967

George Wald

"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981

David H. Hubel

"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981

Torsten N. Wiesel

"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"

optics (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1911

Allvar Gullstrand

"for his work on the dioptrics of the eye"

otolaryngology (2)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1914

Robert Bárány

"for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1961

Georg von Békésy

"for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"

parasitology (4)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902

Ronald Ross

"for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1907

Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran

"in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1926

Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger

"for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma"

pharmacology (7)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1957

Daniel Bovet

"for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988

Sir James W. Black

"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988

Gertrude B. Elion

"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988

George H. Hitchings

"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998

Robert F. Furchgott

"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998

Louis J. Ignarro

"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998

Ferid Murad

"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"

physiology (7)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1909

Emil Theodor Kocher

"for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947

Carl Ferdinand Cori

"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947

Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz

"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964

Konrad Bloch

"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964

Feodor Lynen

"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985

Michael S. Brown

"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985

Joseph L. Goldstein

"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"

radiology (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903

Niels Ryberg Finsen

"in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science"

reproductive medicine (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2010

Robert G. Edwards

"for the development of in vitro fertilization"

respiratory physiology (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1938

Corneille Jean François Heymans

"for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration"

surgery (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1909

Emil Theodor Kocher

"for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"

toxicology (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1948

Paul Hermann Müller

"for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods"

transplantation (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1912

Alexis Carrel

"in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs"

transplantation immunology (4)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980

Jean Dausset

"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980

George D. Snell

"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990

Joseph E. Murray

"for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990

E. Donnall Thomas

"for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"

virology (14)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1951

Max Theiler

"for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954

John Franklin Enders

"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954

Thomas Huckle Weller

"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954

Frederick Chapman Robbins

"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966

Peyton Rous

"for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969

Max Delbrück

"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969

Alfred D. Hershey

"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969

Salvador E. Luria

"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975

David Baltimore

"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975

Renato Dulbecco

"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975

Howard Martin Temin

"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008

Harald zur Hausen

"for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi

"for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008

Luc Montagnier

"for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"

zoology (3)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973

Karl von Frisch

"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973

Konrad Lorenz

"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973

Nikolaas Tinbergen

"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"

 

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