Nobelprize.org
Lists of Nobel Prizes and Laureates

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Lists of Nobel Prizes and Laureates

Show with photos

Collage: Barbara McClintock, Paul Ehrlich, J. Robin Warren, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and James Watson

All Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded 105 times to 207 Nobel Laureates between 1901 and 2014. Click on the links to get more information.

John O'Keefe thumb picture
May-Britt Moser thumb picture
Edvard I. Moser thumb picture
John O'Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser

"for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain"

James E. Rothman thumb picture
Randy W. Schekman thumb picture
Thomas C. Südhof thumb picture
James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof

"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"

Sir John B. Gurdon thumb picture
Shinya Yamanaka thumb picture
Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka

"for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"

Bruce A. Beutler thumb picture
Jules A. Hoffmann thumb picture
Bruce A. Beutler and Jules A. Hoffmann

"for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"

Ralph M. Steinman thumb picture
Ralph M. Steinman

"for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity"

Robert G. Edwards thumb picture
Robert G. Edwards

"for the development of in vitro fertilization"

Elizabeth H. Blackburn thumb picture
Carol W. Greider thumb picture
Jack W. Szostak thumb picture
Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostak

"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"

Harald zur Hausen thumb picture
Harald zur Hausen

"for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer"

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi thumb picture
Luc Montagnier thumb picture
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier

"for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"

Mario R. Capecchi thumb picture
Sir Martin J. Evans thumb picture
Oliver Smithies thumb picture
Mario R. Capecchi, Sir Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies

"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"

Andrew Z. Fire thumb picture
Craig C. Mello thumb picture
Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello

"for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"

Barry J. Marshall thumb picture
J. Robin Warren thumb picture
Barry J. Marshall and J. Robin Warren

"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"

Richard Axel thumb picture
Linda B. Buck thumb picture
Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck

"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"

Paul C. Lauterbur thumb picture
Sir Peter Mansfield thumb picture
Paul C. Lauterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield

"for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"

Sydney Brenner thumb picture
H. Robert Horvitz thumb picture
John E. Sulston thumb picture
Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz and John E. Sulston

"for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"

Leland H. Hartwell thumb picture
Tim Hunt thumb picture
Sir Paul M. Nurse thumb picture
Leland H. Hartwell, Tim Hunt and Sir Paul M. Nurse

"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"

Arvid Carlsson thumb picture
Paul Greengard thumb picture
Eric R. Kandel thumb picture
Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard and Eric R. Kandel

"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"

Günter Blobel thumb picture
Günter Blobel

"for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"

Robert F. Furchgott thumb picture
Louis J. Ignarro thumb picture
Ferid Murad thumb picture
Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad

"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"

Stanley B. Prusiner thumb picture
Stanley B. Prusiner

"for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection"

Peter C. Doherty thumb picture
Rolf M. Zinkernagel thumb picture
Peter C. Doherty and Rolf M. Zinkernagel

"for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"

Edward B. Lewis thumb picture
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard thumb picture
Eric F. Wieschaus thumb picture
Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric F. Wieschaus

"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"

Alfred G. Gilman thumb picture
Martin Rodbell thumb picture
Alfred G. Gilman and Martin Rodbell

"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"

Edmond H. Fischer thumb picture
Edwin G. Krebs thumb picture
Edmond H. Fischer and Edwin G. Krebs

"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"

Erwin Neher thumb picture
Bert Sakmann thumb picture
Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann

"for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"

Joseph E. Murray thumb picture
E. Donnall Thomas thumb picture
Joseph E. Murray and E. Donnall Thomas

"for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"

J. Michael Bishop thumb picture
Harold E. Varmus thumb picture
J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus

"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"

Sir James W. Black thumb picture
Gertrude B. Elion thumb picture
George H. Hitchings thumb picture
Sir James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion and George H. Hitchings

"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"

Susumu Tonegawa thumb picture
Susumu Tonegawa

"for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity"

Michael S. Brown thumb picture
Joseph L. Goldstein thumb picture
Michael S. Brown and Joseph L. Goldstein

"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"

Niels K. Jerne thumb picture
Georges J.F. Köhler thumb picture
César Milstein thumb picture
Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler and César Milstein

"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"

Barbara McClintock thumb picture
Barbara McClintock

"for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"

Sune K. Bergström thumb picture
Bengt I. Samuelsson thumb picture
John R. Vane thumb picture
Sune K. Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson and John R. Vane

"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"

Roger W. Sperry thumb picture
Roger W. Sperry

"for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres"

David H. Hubel thumb picture
Torsten N. Wiesel thumb picture
David H. Hubel and Torsten N. Wiesel

"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"

Baruj Benacerraf thumb picture
Jean Dausset thumb picture
George D. Snell thumb picture
Baruj Benacerraf, Jean Dausset and George D. Snell

"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"

Allan M. Cormack thumb picture
Godfrey N. Hounsfield thumb picture
Allan M. Cormack and Godfrey N. Hounsfield

"for the development of computer assisted tomography"

Werner Arber thumb picture
Daniel Nathans thumb picture
Hamilton O. Smith thumb picture
Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith

"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"

Roger Guillemin thumb picture
Andrew V. Schally thumb picture
Roger Guillemin and Andrew V. Schally

"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"

Rosalyn Yalow thumb picture
Rosalyn Yalow

"for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"

Baruch S. Blumberg thumb picture
D. Carleton Gajdusek thumb picture
Baruch S. Blumberg and D. Carleton Gajdusek

"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"

David Baltimore thumb picture
Renato Dulbecco thumb picture
Howard Martin Temin thumb picture
David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco and Howard Martin Temin

"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"

Albert Claude thumb picture
Christian de Duve thumb picture
George E. Palade thumb picture
Albert Claude, Christian de Duve and George E. Palade

"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"

Karl von Frisch thumb picture
Konrad Lorenz thumb picture
Nikolaas Tinbergen thumb picture
Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz and Nikolaas Tinbergen

"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"

Gerald M. Edelman thumb picture
Rodney R. Porter thumb picture
Gerald M. Edelman and Rodney R. Porter

"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"

Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. thumb picture
Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.

"for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones"

Sir Bernard Katz thumb picture
Ulf von Euler thumb picture
Julius Axelrod thumb picture
Sir Bernard Katz, Ulf von Euler and Julius Axelrod

"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"

Max Delbrück thumb picture
Alfred D. Hershey thumb picture
Salvador E. Luria thumb picture
Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey and Salvador E. Luria

"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"

Robert W. Holley thumb picture
Har Gobind Khorana thumb picture
Marshall W. Nirenberg thumb picture
Robert W. Holley, Har Gobind Khorana and Marshall W. Nirenberg

"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"

Ragnar Granit thumb picture
Haldan Keffer Hartline thumb picture
George Wald thumb picture
Ragnar Granit, Haldan Keffer Hartline and George Wald

"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"

Peyton Rous thumb picture
Peyton Rous

"for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses"

Charles Brenton Huggins thumb picture
Charles Brenton Huggins

"for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer"

François Jacob thumb picture
André Lwoff thumb picture
Jacques Monod thumb picture
François Jacob, André Lwoff and Jacques Monod

"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"

Konrad Bloch thumb picture
Feodor Lynen thumb picture
Konrad Bloch and Feodor Lynen

"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"

Sir John Carew Eccles thumb picture
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin thumb picture
Andrew Fielding Huxley thumb picture
Sir John Carew Eccles, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and Andrew Fielding Huxley

"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"

Francis Harry Compton Crick thumb picture
James Dewey Watson thumb picture
Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins thumb picture
Francis Harry Compton Crick, James Dewey Watson and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins

"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"

Georg von Békésy thumb picture
Georg von Békésy

"for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"

Severo Ochoa thumb picture
Arthur Kornberg thumb picture
Severo Ochoa and Arthur Kornberg

"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"

George Wells Beadle thumb picture
Edward Lawrie Tatum thumb picture
George Wells Beadle and Edward Lawrie Tatum

"for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"

Joshua Lederberg thumb picture
Joshua Lederberg

"for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria"

Daniel Bovet thumb picture
Daniel Bovet

"for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles"

André Frédéric Cournand thumb picture
Werner Forssmann thumb picture
Dickinson W. Richards thumb picture
André Frédéric Cournand, Werner Forssmann and Dickinson W. Richards

"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"

Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell thumb picture
Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell

"for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes"

John Franklin Enders thumb picture
Thomas Huckle Weller thumb picture
Frederick Chapman Robbins thumb picture
John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller and Frederick Chapman Robbins

"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"

Hans Adolf Krebs thumb picture
Hans Adolf Krebs

"for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"

Fritz Albert Lipmann thumb picture
Fritz Albert Lipmann

"for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"

Selman Abraham Waksman thumb picture
Selman Abraham Waksman

"for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"

Max Theiler thumb picture
Max Theiler

"for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"

Edward Calvin Kendall thumb picture
Tadeus Reichstein thumb picture
Philip Showalter Hench thumb picture
Edward Calvin Kendall, Tadeus Reichstein and Philip Showalter Hench

"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"

Walter Rudolf Hess thumb picture
Walter Rudolf Hess

"for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs"

Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz thumb picture
Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz

"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses"

Paul Hermann Müller thumb picture
Paul Hermann Müller

"for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods"

Carl Ferdinand Cori thumb picture
Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz thumb picture
Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz

"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"

Bernardo Alberto Houssay thumb picture
Bernardo Alberto Houssay

"for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar"

Hermann Joseph Muller thumb picture
Hermann Joseph Muller

"for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation"

Sir Alexander Fleming thumb picture
Ernst Boris Chain thumb picture
Sir Howard Walter Florey thumb picture
Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chain and Sir Howard Walter Florey

"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"

Joseph Erlanger thumb picture
Herbert Spencer Gasser thumb picture
Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser

"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"

Henrik Carl Peter Dam thumb picture
Henrik Carl Peter Dam

"for his discovery of vitamin K"

Edward Adelbert Doisy thumb picture
Edward Adelbert Doisy

"for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1941

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1940

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

Gerhard Domagk thumb picture
Gerhard Domagk

"for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil"

Corneille Jean François Heymans thumb picture
Corneille Jean François Heymans

"for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration"

Albert von Szent-Györgyi Nagyrápolt thumb picture
Albert von Szent-Györgyi Nagyrápolt

"for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid"

Sir Henry Hallett Dale thumb picture
Otto Loewi thumb picture
Sir Henry Hallett Dale and Otto Loewi

"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"

Hans Spemann thumb picture
Hans Spemann

"for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development"

George Hoyt Whipple thumb picture
George Richards Minot thumb picture
William Parry Murphy thumb picture
George Hoyt Whipple, George Richards Minot and William Parry Murphy

"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"

Thomas Hunt Morgan thumb picture
Thomas Hunt Morgan

"for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity"

Sir Charles Scott Sherrington thumb picture
Edgar Douglas Adrian thumb picture
Sir Charles Scott Sherrington and Edgar Douglas Adrian

"for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"

Otto Heinrich Warburg thumb picture
Otto Heinrich Warburg

"for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"

Karl Landsteiner thumb picture
Karl Landsteiner

"for his discovery of human blood groups"

Christiaan Eijkman thumb picture
Christiaan Eijkman

"for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin"

Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins thumb picture
Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins

"for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins"

Julius Wagner-Jauregg thumb picture
Julius Wagner-Jauregg

"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica"

Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger thumb picture
Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger

"for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1925

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

Willem Einthoven thumb picture
Willem Einthoven

"for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram"

Archibald Vivian Hill thumb picture
Archibald Vivian Hill

"for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle"

Otto Fritz Meyerhof thumb picture
Otto Fritz Meyerhof

"for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1921

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

Schack August Steenberg Krogh thumb picture
Schack August Steenberg Krogh

"for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism"

Jules Bordet thumb picture
Jules Bordet

"for his discoveries relating to immunity"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1918

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1917

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1916

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1915

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

Robert Bárány thumb picture
Robert Bárány

"for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"

Charles Robert Richet thumb picture
Charles Robert Richet

"in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis"

Alexis Carrel thumb picture
Alexis Carrel

"in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs"

Allvar Gullstrand thumb picture
Allvar Gullstrand

"for his work on the dioptrics of the eye"

Albrecht Kossel thumb picture
Albrecht Kossel

"in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances"

Emil Theodor Kocher thumb picture
Emil Theodor Kocher

"for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"

Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran thumb picture
Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran

"in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases"

Camillo Golgi thumb picture
Santiago Ramón y Cajal thumb picture
Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal

"in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"

Robert Koch thumb picture
Robert Koch

"for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis"

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov thumb picture
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov

"in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged"

Niels Ryberg Finsen thumb picture
Niels Ryberg Finsen

"in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science"

Ronald Ross thumb picture
Ronald Ross

"for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it"

Emil Adolf von Behring thumb picture
Emil Adolf von Behring

"for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths"

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