Nobelprize.org
Lists of Nobel Prizes and Laureates

Physics Laureates: Fields

All Nobel Laureates sorted by field. One Nobel Laureate may be listed under several fields.

accelerator physics (3)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1939

Ernest Orlando Lawrence

"for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1951

Sir John Douglas Cockcroft

"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1951

Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton

"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"

applied electromagnetism (2)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909

Guglielmo Marconi

"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909

Karl Ferdinand Braun

"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"

applied mechanics (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1912

Nils Gustaf Dalén

"for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys"

applied optical physics (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1908

Gabriel Lippmann

"for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"

astrophysics (13)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1936

Victor Franz Hess

"for his discovery of cosmic radiation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1967

Hans Albrecht Bethe

"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1974

Sir Martin Ryle

"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1974

Antony Hewish

"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978

Arno Allan Penzias

"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978

Robert Woodrow Wilson

"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1983

Subramanyan Chandrasekhar

"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1983

William Alfred Fowler

"for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1993

Russell A. Hulse

"for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1993

Joseph H. Taylor Jr.

"for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002

Riccardo Giacconi

"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006

John C. Mather

"for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006

George F. Smoot

"for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"

atomic physics (28)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1901

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1902

Hendrik Antoon Lorentz

"in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1902

Pieter Zeeman

"in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1906

Joseph John Thomson

"in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1914

Max von Laue

"for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1917

Charles Glover Barkla

"for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1919

Johannes Stark

"for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1924

Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn

"for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925

James Franck

"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925

Gustav Ludwig Hertz

"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1927

Arthur Holly Compton

"for his discovery of the effect named after him"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930

Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman

"for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1955

Willis Eugene Lamb

"for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981

Kai M. Siegbahn

"for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989

Norman F. Ramsey

"for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989

Hans G. Dehmelt

"for the development of the ion trap technique"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989

Wolfgang Paul

"for the development of the ion trap technique"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997

Steven Chu

"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997

Claude Cohen-Tannoudji

"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997

William D. Phillips

"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001

Eric A. Cornell

"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001

Wolfgang Ketterle

"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001

Carl E. Wieman

"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005

John L. Hall

"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005

Theodor W. Hänsch

"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012

Serge Haroche

"for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012

David J. Wineland

"for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"

condensed matter physics (28)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1962

Lev Davidovich Landau

"for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1970

Louis Eugène Félix Néel

"for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973

Leo Esaki

"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973

Ivar Giaever

"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973

Brian David Josephson

"for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977

Philip Warren Anderson

"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977

Sir Nevill Francis Mott

"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977

John Hasbrouck van Vleck

"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978

Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa

"for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1982

Kenneth G. Wilson

"for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1985

Klaus von Klitzing

"for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986

Gerd Binnig

"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986

Heinrich Rohrer

"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1991

Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

"for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1994

Bertram N. Brockhouse

"for the development of neutron spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1994

Clifford G. Shull

"for the development of the neutron diffraction technique"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998

Robert B. Laughlin

"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998

Horst L. Störmer

"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998

Daniel C. Tsui

"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000

Zhores I. Alferov

"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000

Herbert Kroemer

"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003

Alexei A. Abrikosov

"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003

Vitaly L. Ginzburg

"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003

Anthony J. Leggett

"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007

Albert Fert

"for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007

Peter Grünberg

"for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010

Andre Geim

"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010

Konstantin Novoselov

"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"

cosmic radiation (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1936

Victor Franz Hess

"for his discovery of cosmic radiation"

cosmology (3)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011

Saul Perlmutter

"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011

Brian P. Schmidt

"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011

Adam G. Riess

"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"

critical phenomena (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1982

Kenneth G. Wilson

"for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"

crystallography (4)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915

Sir William Henry Bragg

"for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915

William Lawrence Bragg

"for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1937

Clinton Joseph Davisson

"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1937

George Paget Thomson

"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"

electromagnetism (14)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1907

Albert Abraham Michelson

"for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909

Guglielmo Marconi

"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909

Karl Ferdinand Braun

"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1911

Wilhelm Wien

"for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1923

Robert Andrews Millikan

"for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1928

Owen Willans Richardson

"for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930

Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman

"for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1937

Clinton Joseph Davisson

"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1937

George Paget Thomson

"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1947

Sir Edward Victor Appleton

"for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958

Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov

"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958

Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm

"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958

Il´ja Mikhailovich Frank

"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1970

Louis Eugène Félix Néel

"for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"

electron optics (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986

Ernst Ruska

"for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope"

electronics technology (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000

Jack S. Kilby

"for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"

experimental particle physics (4)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1976

Burton Richter

"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1976

Samuel Chao Chung Ting

"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1984

Carlo Rubbia

"for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1984

Simon van der Meer

"for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"

fiber technology (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009

Charles Kuen Kao

"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication"

gas physics (2)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1904

Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt)

"for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1910

Johannes Diderik van der Waals

"for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids"

instrumentation (21)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1927

Charles Thomson Rees Wilson

"for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1939

Ernest Orlando Lawrence

"for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1954

Walther Bothe

"for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956

William Bradford Shockley

"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956

John Bardeen

"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956

Walter Houser Brattain

"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958

Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov

"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1960

Donald Arthur Glaser

"for the invention of the bubble chamber"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986

Ernst Ruska

"for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986

Gerd Binnig

"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986

Heinrich Rohrer

"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1992

Georges Charpak

"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1994

Bertram N. Brockhouse

"for the development of neutron spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1994

Clifford G. Shull

"for the development of the neutron diffraction technique"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000

Zhores I. Alferov

"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000

Herbert Kroemer

"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006

John C. Mather

"for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006

George F. Smoot

"for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009

Charles Kuen Kao

"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009

Willard S. Boyle

"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit - the CCD sensor"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009

George E. Smith

"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit - the CCD sensor"

interferometry (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1914

Max von Laue

"for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals"

material physics (3)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1946

Percy Williams Bridgman

"for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010

Andre Geim

"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010

Konstantin Novoselov

"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"

mechanics (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1912

Nils Gustaf Dalén

"for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys"

metals (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1920

Charles Edouard Guillaume

"in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys"

molecular physics (3)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1904

Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt)

"for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1910

Johannes Diderik van der Waals

"for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1926

Jean Baptiste Perrin

"for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium"

neutrino astrophysics (2)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002

Raymond Davis Jr.

"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002

Masatoshi Koshiba

"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"

nuclear physics (17)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903

Antoine Henri Becquerel

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903

Pierre Curie

"in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903

Marie Curie, née Sklodowska

"in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1935

James Chadwick

"for the discovery of the neutron"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1938

Enrico Fermi

"for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1943

Otto Stern

"for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1944

Isidor Isaac Rabi

"for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1951

Sir John Douglas Cockcroft

"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1951

Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton

"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1952

Felix Bloch

"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1952

Edward Mills Purcell

"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1955

Polykarp Kusch

"for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1961

Robert Hofstadter

"for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1961

Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer

"for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963

Eugene Paul Wigner

"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963

Maria Goeppert Mayer

"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963

J. Hans D. Jensen

"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"

optical physics (10)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1907

Albert Abraham Michelson

"for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1908

Gabriel Lippmann

"for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1953

Frits (Frederik) Zernike

"for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964

Charles Hard Townes

"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964

Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov

"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964

Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov

"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1966

Alfred Kastler

"for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1971

Dennis Gabor

"for his invention and development of the holographic method"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981

Nicolaas Bloembergen

"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981

Arthur Leonard Schawlow

"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"

particle physics (34)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1923

Robert Andrews Millikan

"for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1936

Carl David Anderson

"for his discovery of the positron"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1948

Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett

"for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1950

Cecil Frank Powell

"for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1957

Chen Ning Yang

"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1957

Tsung-Dao (T.D.) Lee

"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1959

Emilio Gino Segrè

"for their discovery of the antiproton"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1959

Owen Chamberlain

"for their discovery of the antiproton"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963

Eugene Paul Wigner

"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1968

Luis Walter Alvarez

"for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1969

Murray Gell-Mann

"for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979

Sheldon Lee Glashow

"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979

Abdus Salam

"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979

Steven Weinberg

"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1980

James Watson Cronin

"for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1980

Val Logsdon Fitch

"for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988

Leon M. Lederman

"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988

Melvin Schwartz

"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988

Jack Steinberger

"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990

Jerome I. Friedman

"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990

Henry W. Kendall

"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990

Richard E. Taylor

"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1995

Martin L. Perl

"for the discovery of the tau lepton"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1995

Frederick Reines

"for the detection of the neutrino"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999

Gerardus 't Hooft

"for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999

Martinus J.G. Veltman

"for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004

David J. Gross

"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004

H. David Politzer

"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004

Frank Wilczek

"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008

Yoichiro Nambu

"for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008

Makoto Kobayashi

"for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008

Toshihide Maskawa

"for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013

François Englert

"for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013

Peter W. Higgs

"for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"

plasma physics (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1970

Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén

"for fundamental work and discoveries in magnetohydro-dynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics"

quantum electrodynamics (8)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964

Charles Hard Townes

"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964

Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov

"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964

Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov

"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965

Sin-Itiro Tomonaga

"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965

Julian Schwinger

"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965

Richard P. Feynman

"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981

Nicolaas Bloembergen

"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981

Arthur Leonard Schawlow

"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"

quantum mechanics (11)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1918

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck

"in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1929

Prince Louis-Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie

"for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1932

Werner Karl Heisenberg

"for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933

Erwin Schrödinger

"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933

Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac

"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1945

Wolfgang Pauli

"for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1949

Hideki Yukawa

"for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1954

Max Born

"for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965

Sin-Itiro Tomonaga

"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965

Julian Schwinger

"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965

Richard P. Feynman

"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"

quantum optics (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005

Roy J. Glauber

"for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"

quantum physics (2)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1902

Hendrik Antoon Lorentz

"in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1902

Pieter Zeeman

"in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"

semiconductor technology (5)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956

William Bradford Shockley

"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956

John Bardeen

"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956

Walter Houser Brattain

"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009

Willard S. Boyle

"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit - the CCD sensor"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009

George E. Smith

"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit - the CCD sensor"

semiconductors (3)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973

Leo Esaki

"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973

Ivar Giaever

"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973

Brian David Josephson

"for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects"

space physics (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1947

Sir Edward Victor Appleton

"for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer"

superconductivity (9)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1913

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes

"for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972

John Bardeen

"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972

Leon Neil Cooper

"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972

John Robert Schrieffer

"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1987

J. Georg Bednorz

"for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1987

K. Alexander Müller

"for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003

Alexei A. Abrikosov

"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003

Vitaly L. Ginzburg

"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003

Anthony J. Leggett

"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"

superfluidity (8)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1962

Lev Davidovich Landau

"for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978

Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa

"for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996

David M. Lee

"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996

Douglas D. Osheroff

"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996

Robert C. Richardson

"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003

Alexei A. Abrikosov

"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003

Vitaly L. Ginzburg

"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003

Anthony J. Leggett

"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"

theoretical nuclear physics (4)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1922

Niels Henrik David Bohr

"for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975

Aage Niels Bohr

"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975

Ben Roy Mottelson

"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975

Leo James Rainwater

"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"

theoretical physics (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921

Albert Einstein

"for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"

x-rays (3)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1901

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915

Sir William Henry Bragg

"for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915

William Lawrence Bragg

"for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays"

 

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