The Nobel Prize in Physics 1976
Burton Richter, Samuel C.C. Ting
Born: 22 March 1931, Brooklyn, NY, USA
Affiliation at the time of the award: Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford, CA, USA
Prize motivation: "for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"
Field: experimental particle physics
Around 1970 very many elementary particles had been established, most of them made up from two or three quarks. In two independent experiments with particle collisions at high energy, Burton Richter and Samuel Ting discovered in 1974 a new heavy particle called "J/Psi", proving the existence of a fourth quark, later named "charm".