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Lists of Nobel Prizes and Laureates

Manual

Manual for the Nomination Database for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1901-1951

Introduction

The present registry comprises all candidates nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine since this prize was instituted in 1901, with one important limitation, i.e. only material older than 50 years is included, as stipulated by the statutes of the Nobel Foundation. Currently, data until 1949 is included.

The database contains information recorded in the registry. If further information is desired, e.g. original documents and evaluations, a written application may be submitted to the Nobel Assembly, Karolinska Institutet, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden. The application must include a description and reason for the intended study.

Definitions

Nominator: The person who submitted the nomination.
Nominee: The person who is nominated. A maximum of three per nomination.
Evaluator: A person at the Prize Awarder who evaluated the nomination.

General Notes on Searching the Registry

1. All entries use the Latin alphabet, and wherever possible the English language. Names of universities have been translated in to English; where the translation might cause confusion, the original name is given first followed by an English translation in parentheses. Non-English vowels in the names of nominees and nominators have generally been included; non-English consonants other than ‘ñ’ have generally not been included.

2. The search function is not case sensitive.

3. For Laureates, this registry uses the spelling of names as decided by the Nobel Committee.

4. Abbreviations are not punctuated. For example, the registry will show St Louis and Washington, DC.

5. Information on the specific university of a nominee or nominator is not always available to the registry, in which case only a city is listed. Therefore, a nominee working at Harvard University, for example, may be listed in Boston, MA instead of Cambridge, MA (by contrast, someone known to work at this university would be listed only under Cambridge, MA).

6. The Nobel Prize for certain years was awarded at a later date. In these cases, the year to which the award applies is listed in the field for 'Received prize' for the nominee.

7. Occasionally, nominations are declared invalid by the Nobel Committee. This may be because they were received after the deadline, were submitted by ineligible nominators, and a number of other reasons. These are not included in the database.

Description of the Information Provided

A detailed description of the information to be found under each heading (field) in the entry form is provided below, with the fields listed in the order that they appear on the entry form.

Year: Indicates the year when the Nobel Committee declared the nomination valid.

Number: This is the registration number assigned to each nomination by the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet, and is presented in two fields. The first field contains the number assigned to the nomination by the Nobel Assembly; the second number is used if:

a) several nominators, in the same nomination letter, have nominated a candidate. Each nominator is then presented in a separate entry, numbered xx-1, xx-2, etc. If there are more than five nominators in the same nomination letter, only one entry is used. 'Et al' is written after the nominator's surname followed by the surnames of the additional nominators within block parentheses. All names are searchable, though the names within block parentheses are not visible to the user. Additionally, all the nominators' names, as well as all entry numbers for the nomination, are listed in the 'Comments' field of each entry. If the number of nominators exceeds the space available in the surname field, additional entries are made in the same fashion until all names have been included.

b) more than 3 candidates are nominated. Candidates are listed with three candidates per entry and numbered as above. The names of all candidates and entry numbers for the nomination are presented in the 'Comments' field of each entry.

Nominee: Up to three candidates may be listed per entry (see under ' Number').

Name: The name of the nominated candidate.

Gender: Gender of the candidate. 'M' denotes male, 'F' denotes female.

Year, birth: Year of birth.

Year, death: Year of death.

Profession/Category: Academic title and/or profession of the candidate. The following abbreviations have been used:

prof emer: professor emeritus
prof: professor
temp prof: temporary professorship
assoc prof: associate professor
dept head: head of department

University: Academic institution or company/organisation of employment of the candidate at the time of nomination. The word 'University' has generally been excluded. For example, 'Chicago' refers specifically to the University of Chicago, and not to any other universities located in Chicago. Where available, the department has also been included after the name of the university. In cases when an English translation of a university name might cause confusion, the foreign name is placed first, followed by the English name within parentheses. For a list of universities available in the database, start at the list of countries and then click on 'List Universities' at the country of interest.

City: Primarily the city in which the university is located; alternatively the city in which the candidate works or resides. English/international names have been used for cities. The city name in use at the time of the nomination has been used in the first instance; other names are listed within parentheses. For a list of cities present in the database, start at the list of countries and then click on 'List Cities' at the country of interest.

Country: Two-letter codes have been used, according to the ISO 3166-1 standard. See the 'list of countries' for a list of all countries present in the database. Additionally, for the United States and Canada, two-letter codes have been used to indicate state or province. For cities where borders have changed, the country at the time of the nomination is listed.

*The abbreviation 'SU' has been used for all regions of the former U.S.S.R. (with the exception of the Baltic states 'LV', 'EE', 'LT'), regardless of the year of nomination.

*The abbreviations 'CZ' and 'YU' have been used for all regions of former Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia respectively, regardless of the year of nomination.

Received prize: If the candidate has been awarded a Nobel Prize in any category, this is indicated here with the abbreviation for the category and the year the prize was received.

Motivation: The motivation, as presented by the nominator, for the nominee to receive the Nobel Prize.

Nominator: details for one nominator are listed per entry (see under 'Number' for multiple nominators in the same letter).

Information for the nominator follows the same guidelines as for the nominee(s), with the following exceptions:

a) dates of birth/death are not provided,

b) if the nominator has received a Nobel Prize, the category and year are given in the 'Profession/Category' field.

Evaluation: Whether or not an evaluation has been made is indicated by 'Yes' or 'No'.

Evaluator: Each of these fields contains the surname, first name, initial, and gender of an evaluator. If an evaluation includes nominees not present in the particular entry, or if there are more than three evaluations, this is explained in the 'Comment' field.

Type: This field lists the nominees by number (1-3). For those nominees where an evaluation has been conducted, this is indicated by 'Full' (full evaluation) or 'Prel' (preliminary evaluation).

Simple Search

The simple search is performed for names of nominators and nominees, words in the motivation and the year.

Examples:
To search for all nominations made in 1901, type '1901' in the search field and press GO. To search for all nominations of Smith and all nominations made by Smith, type 'Smith' in the search field and press GO.

If you type more than one word, only nominations matching all words will be shown.

Advanced search

The advanced search allows you to specify the search in more detail. You do this by formulating a sentence.

You can search for three terms at the same time. For each term, specify whether it is the field for the name, gender, university, city or country for the nominee, or the name, gender, university, city or country for the nominator, or the motivation you want to search for. Please note that depending on the field you choose, your search term must fit this field – that is, if you search for a country, use the two-letter code; if you search for a gender, use either M or F. For information about each field, see above.

For each term you can specify the logical operators 'contains', 'is' or 'is not'. 'Contains' means that your term must be present in the field. 'Is' means that the field must be exactly what you write in the search term. 'Is not' means that the search term must not be present.

You can specify one or several words in each term. If you choose 'contains' the logical operator 'and' is used for the words in the field. If you choose 'is' or 'is not', the words are treated as a complete search term.

Between each term you can specify the logical operators 'or' or 'and'.

To restrict the search to nominations between 1920 and 1930, you can specify 'Begin at 1920. End at 1930'.

You may order the result according to the year of the motivation, nominator's last name and first nominee's last name.

Lists

You may list all countries present in the database. From this list you can list all cities or universities in this country present in the database. The list will display how many entries in the database that contain this search term, and you can directly perform the searches by clicking on the number.

All lists are calculated on demand and might therefore take some time.

The lists of cities and universities are not perfect. Sometimes comments are added in the 'comments' field. Sometimes departments are added beside the name of the university. Regard the lists as an overview of what is present in the database, not as true lists of cities or universities.

Note that the numbers may not add up. If a country has ten matches, you might find only seven matches against cities or universities in this country. This is because not all records contain information about cities or universities. In rare cases the opposite is true: that a country with ten matches has eleven cities. This is because each nomination is treated as one record, and different nominees in the same nomination can be from different cities in the same country.

 

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MLA style: "Manual for the Nomination Database for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1901-1951". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2014. Web. 22 Nov 2014. <http://www.nobelprize.org/nomination/medicine/manual.html>

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