|Name:||Baron Paul Henri Benjamin d'Estournelles de Constant|
|Profession/Category:||Former diplomat. Member of the French parliament. Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague.|
|Received prize:||Pea 1909 »|
|Motivation:||D'Estournelles represented France at The Hague Peace Conference in 1899. He attempted to get acceptance for the principle of compulsory arbitration, but this was not possible. After the conference he strongly promoted the Permanent Court of Arbitration, and he founded the French Groupe de l'Arbitrage in 1903. D'Estournelles advocated Franco-German conciliation and wanted a European federation. In 1905 he founded Conciliation Internationale, a network of peace workers aimed at influencing public opinion.|
|Profession/Category:||Member of the Commission of the Permanent International Peace Bureau.|
|Name:||Karl Vilhelm Hammer|
|Comment:||Full name: Paul Henri Benjamin Balluet, Baron d'Estournelles de Constant de Rébecque.
Odessa was part of Russia, then of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In 1991 the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic declared independence and the name was changed to Ukraine. Odessa is the admministrative center of southwestern Ukraine.