Lists of Nobel Prizes and Laureates
Lists of Nobel Prizes and Laureates

Alfred Nobel Timeline



1833 Alfred Nobel is born in Stockholm, Sweden. In the same year, his father – Immanuel Nobel – goes bankrupt.
1837 Immanuel Nobel travels to Finland and then to St Petersburg, Russia, where he starts a mechanical workshop; he leaves his family behind in Sweden.
1842 The Nobel family is reunited in St Petersburg.
1850-1852 Alfred Nobel goes to Paris and works for one year in the laboratory of T. Jules Pelouze. He also travels to Italy, Germany and the United States (US).
1853-1856 The Crimean War rages.

The Nobel Company flourishes at first, but goes bankrupt as the war ends and the Russian military cancels orders.

Alfred Nobel searches desperately for new products. Nikolai N. Zinin, Nobel's chemistry teacher, reminds him of nitroglycerin.
1862 Alfred Nobel starts his experiments with nitroglycerin.
1863 Nobel obtains the first patent on nitroglycerin (blasting oil) as an industrial explosive. He develops and patents a detonator (blasting cap) for triggering the explosion of nitroglycerin. He also moves to Stockholm, where he continues his experiments.
1864 Emil, Alfred Nobel's brother, is killed during the preparation of nitroglycerin at Heleneborg, Stockholm.

Nobel continues his experiments and forms the company Nitroglycerin AB in Stockholm, Sweden.
1865 Alfred Nobel improves the blasting cap design and moves to Germany to set up the Alfred Nobel & Co Factory in Krümmel near Hamburg.
1866 Nobel establishes the United States Blasting Oil Company in the US.

A violent explosion destroys the Krümmel plant. Experimenting on a raft anchored on the river Elbe, Alfred Nobel tries to make nitroglycerin safer to handle. He finds that nitroglycerin is stabilized by the addition of kieselguhr (a siliceous deposit; also known as diatomaceous earth), and calls this mixture dynamite.
1867 Alfred Nobel obtains a patent for dynamite.
1871 Nobel establishes the British Dynamite Company (Ardeer, Scotland, UK). In 1877 the company name is changed to Nobel's Explosives Company.
1872 Immanuel, Alfred Nobel's father, passes away.
1873 At the age of 40 Alfred Nobel is a wealthy man. He moves to Paris and settles at Avenue Malakoff.

The manufacture of nitroglycerin and dynamite starts at Ardeer.
1875 Alfred Nobel invents blasting gelatine in Paris and patents it in 1876. He establishes Société Générale pour la Fabrication de la Dynamite in Paris, France.
1876 Dynamitaktiengesellschaft (DAG), formerly Alfred Nobel & Co (Hamburg, Germany), is formed.

Alfred Nobel advertises for a housekeeper/personal secretary, meets with Bertha Kinsky von Chinic und Tettau (later von Suttner) and hires her. She leaves his employment after a short time and becomes a leading peace activist.
1880 Dynamite Nobel is formed by merging Nobel's Italian and Swiss companies.
1881 Alfred Nobel buys an estate and laboratory at Sevran outside Paris.
1885 German Union is formed by merging DAG and a group of German dynamite companies.
1886 Nobel-Dynamite Trust Co (London, UK) is formed by merging DAG and the Nobel's Explosives Company.
1887 Nobel obtains a patent for the blasting powder "ballistite" in France.
1889 Andriette, Alfred Nobel's mother, passes away.
1891 Alfred Nobel leaves Paris and settles in San Remo, Italy, after a dispute with the French government over ballistite.
1893 Alfred Nobel hires Ragnar Sohlman, who he later names executor of his will and testament.
1894 Alfred Nobel buys a small machine works (Bofors-Gullspång) and a manor (Björkborn) at Karlskoga, Sweden.
1895 The third and final will of Alfred Nobel is signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris.
1896 Alfred Nobel dies at his home in San Remo, Italy, on 10 December 1896.


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