NOBEL PRIZES 2018

12 new laureates have been awarded for achievements that have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind.

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2018

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2018 was awarded “for groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics” with one half to Arthur Ashkin “for the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems” and the other half jointly to Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland “for their method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses”.

 

Their inventions have revolutionised laser physics. Extremely small objects and incredibly rapid processes are now being seen in a new light. Advanced precision instruments are opening up unexplored areas of research and a multitude of industrial and medical applications.

Arthur Ashkin, Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland

Ill. Niklas Elmehed. © Nobel Media

Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2018

This year’s Nobel Laureates have been inspired by the power of evolution and used the same principles – genetic change and selection – to develop proteins that solve humankind’s chemical problems.

© Johan Jarnestad / The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

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The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2018

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2018 was awarded to James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo "for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation." The Laureates has shown how different strategies for inhibiting the brakes on the immune system can be used in the treatment of cancer. Their discoveries are a landmark in our fight against cancer.

© The Nobel Committee for Physiology or Medicine. Illustrator: Mattias Karlén

Nobel Peace Prize 2018

Both laureates have made a crucial contribution to focusing attention on, and combating, war crimes. Denis Mukwege is the helper who has devoted his life to defending these victims. Nadia Murad is the witness who tells of the abuses perpetrated against herself and others. Each of them in their own way has helped to give greater visibility to war-time sexual violence, so that the perpetrators can be held accountable for their actions.

 

Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad

Ill. Niklas Elmehed. © Nobel Media

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2018

This year’s Laureates have designed methods for addressing some of our time’s most basic and pressing questions about how we create long-term sustained and sustainable economic growth. Their contributions provide us with fundamental insights into the causes and consequences of technological innovation and climate change.

 

© Johan Jarnestad / The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2018 has been awarded to William D. Nordhaus "for integrating climate change into long-run macroeconomic analysis" and Paul M. Romer "for integrating technological innovations into long-run macroeconomic analysis." Their findings have significantly broadened the scope of economic analysis by constructing models that explain how the market economy interacts with nature and knowledge.

William D. Nordhaus and Paul M. Romer

Ill. Niklas Elmehed. © Nobel Media

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