Lists of Nobel Prizes and Laureates

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Lists of Nobel Prizes and Laureates

Show with photos

Tawakkol Karman, Nelson Mandela, Martin Luther King Jr., Mother Teresa, Albert Einstein and Rabindranath Tagore

All Nobel Prizes

Between 1901 and 2017, the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 585 times to 923 people and organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 892 individuals and 24 organizations. Below, you can view the full list of Nobel Prizes and Nobel Laureates.


Rainer Weiss thumb picture
Barry C. Barish thumb picture
Kip S. Thorne thumb picture
Rainer Weiss, Barry C. Barish and Kip S. Thorne

"for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves"

Jacques Dubochet thumb picture
Joachim Frank thumb picture
Richard Henderson thumb picture
Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank and Richard Henderson

"for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution"

Jeffrey C. Hall thumb picture
Michael Rosbash thumb picture
Michael W. Young thumb picture
Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young

"for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm"

Kazuo Ishiguro thumb picture
Kazuo Ishiguro

"who, in novels of great emotional force, has uncovered the abyss beneath our illusory sense of connection with the world"

International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN)  thumb picture
International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN)

"for its work to draw attention to the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons and for its ground-breaking efforts to achieve a treaty-based prohibition of such weapons"


David J. Thouless thumb picture
F. Duncan M. Haldane thumb picture
J. Michael Kosterlitz thumb picture
David J. Thouless, F. Duncan M. Haldane and J. Michael Kosterlitz

"for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter"

Jean-Pierre Sauvage thumb picture
Sir J. Fraser Stoddart thumb picture
Bernard L. Feringa thumb picture
Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir J. Fraser Stoddart and Bernard L. Feringa

"for the design and synthesis of molecular machines"

Yoshinori Ohsumi thumb picture
Yoshinori Ohsumi

"for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy"

Bob Dylan thumb picture
Bob Dylan

"for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition"

Juan Manuel Santos thumb picture
Juan Manuel Santos

"for his resolute efforts to bring the country's more than 50-year-long civil war to an end"


Takaaki Kajita thumb picture
Arthur B. McDonald thumb picture
Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B. McDonald

"for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass"

Tomas Lindahl thumb picture
Paul Modrich thumb picture
Aziz Sancar thumb picture
Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar

"for mechanistic studies of DNA repair"

William C. Campbell thumb picture
Satoshi Ōmura thumb picture
William C. Campbell and Satoshi Ōmura

"for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites"

Youyou Tu thumb picture
Youyou Tu

"for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against Malaria"

Svetlana Alexievich thumb picture
Svetlana Alexievich

"for her polyphonic writings, a monument to suffering and courage in our time"

National Dialogue Quartet  thumb picture
National Dialogue Quartet

"for its decisive contribution to the building of a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia in the wake of the Jasmine Revolution of 2011"


Isamu Akasaki thumb picture
Hiroshi Amano thumb picture
Shuji Nakamura thumb picture
Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura

"for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources"

Eric Betzig thumb picture
Stefan W. Hell thumb picture
William E. Moerner thumb picture
Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell and William E. Moerner

"for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy"

John O'Keefe thumb picture
May-Britt Moser thumb picture
Edvard I. Moser thumb picture
John O'Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser

"for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain"

Patrick Modiano thumb picture
Patrick Modiano

"for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation"

Kailash Satyarthi thumb picture
Malala Yousafzai thumb picture
Kailash Satyarthi and Malala Yousafzai

"for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education"


François Englert thumb picture
Peter W. Higgs thumb picture
François Englert and Peter W. Higgs

"for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"

Martin Karplus thumb picture
Michael Levitt thumb picture
Arieh Warshel thumb picture
Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel

"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"

James E. Rothman thumb picture
Randy W. Schekman thumb picture
Thomas C. Südhof thumb picture
James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof

"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"

Alice Munro thumb picture
Alice Munro

"master of the contemporary short story"

Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)  thumb picture
Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)

"for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons"


Serge Haroche thumb picture
David J. Wineland thumb picture
Serge Haroche and David J. Wineland

"for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"

Robert J. Lefkowitz thumb picture
Brian K. Kobilka thumb picture
Robert J. Lefkowitz and Brian K. Kobilka

"for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"

Sir John B. Gurdon thumb picture
Shinya Yamanaka thumb picture
Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka

"for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"

Mo Yan thumb picture
Mo Yan

"who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary"

European Union (EU)  thumb picture
European Union (EU)

"for over six decades contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe"

Alvin E. Roth thumb picture
Lloyd S. Shapley thumb picture
Alvin E. Roth and Lloyd S. Shapley

"for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design"


Saul Perlmutter thumb picture
Brian P. Schmidt thumb picture
Adam G. Riess thumb picture
Saul Perlmutter, Brian P. Schmidt and Adam G. Riess

"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"

Dan Shechtman thumb picture
Dan Shechtman

"for the discovery of quasicrystals"

Bruce A. Beutler thumb picture
Jules A. Hoffmann thumb picture
Bruce A. Beutler and Jules A. Hoffmann

"for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"

Ralph M. Steinman thumb picture
Ralph M. Steinman

"for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity"

Tomas Tranströmer thumb picture
Tomas Tranströmer

"because, through his condensed, translucent images, he gives us fresh access to reality"

Ellen Johnson Sirleaf thumb picture
Leymah Gbowee thumb picture
Tawakkol Karman thumb picture
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Leymah Gbowee and Tawakkol Karman

"for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work"

Thomas J. Sargent thumb picture
Christopher A. Sims thumb picture
Thomas J. Sargent and Christopher A. Sims

"for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy"


Andre Geim thumb picture
Konstantin Novoselov thumb picture
Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov

"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"

Richard F. Heck thumb picture
Ei-ichi Negishi thumb picture
Akira Suzuki thumb picture
Richard F. Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi and Akira Suzuki

"for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis"

Robert G. Edwards thumb picture
Robert G. Edwards

"for the development of in vitro fertilization"

Mario Vargas Llosa thumb picture
Mario Vargas Llosa

"for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance, revolt, and defeat"

Liu Xiaobo thumb picture
Liu Xiaobo

"for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China"


Charles Kuen Kao thumb picture
Charles Kuen Kao

"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication"

Willard S. Boyle thumb picture
George E. Smith thumb picture
Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith

"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit - the CCD sensor"

Venkatraman Ramakrishnan thumb picture
Thomas A. Steitz thumb picture
Ada E. Yonath thumb picture
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A. Steitz and Ada E. Yonath

"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"

Elizabeth H. Blackburn thumb picture
Carol W. Greider thumb picture
Jack W. Szostak thumb picture
Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostak

"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"

Herta Müller thumb picture
Herta Müller

"who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed"

Barack H. Obama thumb picture
Barack H. Obama

"for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples"

Elinor Ostrom thumb picture
Elinor Ostrom

"for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons"

Oliver E. Williamson thumb picture
Oliver E. Williamson

"for his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm"


Yoichiro Nambu thumb picture
Yoichiro Nambu

"for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics"

Makoto Kobayashi thumb picture
Toshihide Maskawa thumb picture
Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa

"for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"

Osamu Shimomura thumb picture
Martin Chalfie thumb picture
Roger Y. Tsien thumb picture
Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Y. Tsien

"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"

Harald zur Hausen thumb picture
Harald zur Hausen

"for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer"

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi thumb picture
Luc Montagnier thumb picture
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier

"for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"

Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio thumb picture
Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio

"author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization"

Martti Ahtisaari thumb picture
Martti Ahtisaari

"for his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts"

Paul Krugman thumb picture
Paul Krugman

"for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity"


Albert Fert thumb picture
Peter Grünberg thumb picture
Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg

"for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance"

Gerhard Ertl thumb picture
Gerhard Ertl

"for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces"

Mario R. Capecchi thumb picture
Sir Martin J. Evans thumb picture
Oliver Smithies thumb picture
Mario R. Capecchi, Sir Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies

"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"

Doris Lessing thumb picture
Doris Lessing

"that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny"

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)  thumb picture
Albert Arnold (Al) Gore Jr. thumb picture
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and Albert Arnold (Al) Gore Jr.

"for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change"


John C. Mather thumb picture
George F. Smoot thumb picture
John C. Mather and George F. Smoot

"for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"

Roger D. Kornberg thumb picture
Roger D. Kornberg

"for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"

Andrew Z. Fire thumb picture
Craig C. Mello thumb picture
Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello

"for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"

Orhan Pamuk thumb picture
Orhan Pamuk

"who in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures"

Muhammad Yunus thumb picture
Grameen Bank  thumb picture
Muhammad Yunus and Grameen Bank

"for their efforts to create economic and social development from below"

Edmund S. Phelps thumb picture
Edmund S. Phelps

"for his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy"


Roy J. Glauber thumb picture
Roy J. Glauber

"for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"

John L. Hall thumb picture
Theodor W. Hänsch thumb picture
John L. Hall and Theodor W. Hänsch

"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"

Yves Chauvin thumb picture
Robert H. Grubbs thumb picture
Richard R. Schrock thumb picture
Yves Chauvin, Robert H. Grubbs and Richard R. Schrock

"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"

Barry J. Marshall thumb picture
J. Robin Warren thumb picture
Barry J. Marshall and J. Robin Warren

"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"

Harold Pinter thumb picture
Harold Pinter

"who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms"

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)  thumb picture
Mohamed ElBaradei thumb picture
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Mohamed ElBaradei

"for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way"

Robert J. Aumann thumb picture
Thomas C. Schelling thumb picture
Robert J. Aumann and Thomas C. Schelling

"for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis"


David J. Gross thumb picture
H. David Politzer thumb picture
Frank Wilczek thumb picture
David J. Gross, H. David Politzer and Frank Wilczek

"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"

Aaron Ciechanover thumb picture
Avram Hershko thumb picture
Irwin Rose thumb picture
Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose

"for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"

Richard Axel thumb picture
Linda B. Buck thumb picture
Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck

"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"

Elfriede Jelinek thumb picture
Elfriede Jelinek

"for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power"

Wangari Muta Maathai thumb picture
Wangari Muta Maathai

"for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace"

Finn E. Kydland thumb picture
Edward C. Prescott thumb picture
Finn E. Kydland and Edward C. Prescott

"for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles"


Alexei A. Abrikosov thumb picture
Vitaly L. Ginzburg thumb picture
Anthony J. Leggett thumb picture
Alexei A. Abrikosov, Vitaly L. Ginzburg and Anthony J. Leggett

"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003

"for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes"

Peter Agre thumb picture
Peter Agre

"for the discovery of water channels"

Roderick MacKinnon thumb picture
Roderick MacKinnon

"for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels"

Paul C. Lauterbur thumb picture
Sir Peter Mansfield thumb picture
Paul C. Lauterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield

"for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"

John M. Coetzee thumb picture
John M. Coetzee

"who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider"

Shirin Ebadi thumb picture
Shirin Ebadi

"for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children"

Robert F. Engle III thumb picture
Robert F. Engle III

"for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH)"

Clive W.J. Granger thumb picture
Clive W.J. Granger

"for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends (cointegration)"


Raymond Davis Jr. thumb picture
Masatoshi Koshiba thumb picture
Raymond Davis Jr. and Masatoshi Koshiba

"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"

Riccardo Giacconi thumb picture
Riccardo Giacconi

"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002

"for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules"

John B. Fenn thumb picture
Koichi Tanaka thumb picture
John B. Fenn and Koichi Tanaka

"for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules"

Kurt Wüthrich thumb picture
Kurt Wüthrich

"for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution"

Sydney Brenner thumb picture
H. Robert Horvitz thumb picture
John E. Sulston thumb picture
Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz and John E. Sulston

"for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"

Imre Kertész thumb picture
Imre Kertész

"for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history"

Jimmy Carter thumb picture
Jimmy Carter

"for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development"

Daniel Kahneman thumb picture
Daniel Kahneman

"for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty"

Vernon L. Smith thumb picture
Vernon L. Smith

"for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms"


Eric A. Cornell thumb picture
Wolfgang Ketterle thumb picture
Carl E. Wieman thumb picture
Eric A. Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle and Carl E. Wieman

"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"

William S. Knowles thumb picture
Ryoji Noyori thumb picture
William S. Knowles and Ryoji Noyori

"for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions"

K. Barry Sharpless thumb picture
K. Barry Sharpless

"for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions"

Leland H. Hartwell thumb picture
Tim Hunt thumb picture
Sir Paul M. Nurse thumb picture
Leland H. Hartwell, Tim Hunt and Sir Paul M. Nurse

"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"

Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul thumb picture
Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul

"for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories"

United Nations (U.N.)  thumb picture
Kofi Annan thumb picture
United Nations (U.N.) and Kofi Annan

"for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world"


The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000

"for basic work on information and communication technology"

Zhores I. Alferov thumb picture
Herbert Kroemer thumb picture
Zhores I. Alferov and Herbert Kroemer

"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics"

Jack S. Kilby thumb picture
Jack S. Kilby

"for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"

Alan J. Heeger thumb picture
Alan G. MacDiarmid thumb picture
Hideki Shirakawa thumb picture
Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa

"for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"

Arvid Carlsson thumb picture
Paul Greengard thumb picture
Eric R. Kandel thumb picture
Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard and Eric R. Kandel

"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"

Gao Xingjian thumb picture
Gao Xingjian

"for an æuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama"

Kim Dae-jung thumb picture
Kim Dae-jung

"for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular"

James J. Heckman thumb picture
James J. Heckman

"for his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples"

Daniel L. McFadden thumb picture
Daniel L. McFadden

"for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice"


Gerardus 't Hooft thumb picture
Martinus J.G. Veltman thumb picture
Gerardus 't Hooft and Martinus J.G. Veltman

"for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"

Ahmed H. Zewail thumb picture
Ahmed H. Zewail

"for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy"

Günter Blobel thumb picture
Günter Blobel

"for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"

Günter Grass thumb picture
Günter Grass

"whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history"

Médecins Sans Frontières  thumb picture
Médecins Sans Frontières

"in recognition of the organization's pioneering humanitarian work on several continents"

Robert A. Mundell thumb picture
Robert A. Mundell

"for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas"


Robert B. Laughlin thumb picture
Horst L. Störmer thumb picture
Daniel C. Tsui thumb picture
Robert B. Laughlin, Horst L. Störmer and Daniel C. Tsui

"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"

Walter Kohn thumb picture
Walter Kohn

"for his development of the density-functional theory"

John A. Pople thumb picture
John A. Pople

"for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry"

Robert F. Furchgott thumb picture
Louis J. Ignarro thumb picture
Ferid Murad thumb picture
Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad

"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"

José Saramago thumb picture
José Saramago

"who with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusory reality"

John Hume thumb picture
David Trimble thumb picture
John Hume and David Trimble

"for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland"


Steven Chu thumb picture
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji thumb picture
William D. Phillips thumb picture
Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and William D. Phillips

"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"

Paul D. Boyer thumb picture
John E. Walker thumb picture
Paul D. Boyer and John E. Walker

"for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"

Jens C. Skou thumb picture
Jens C. Skou

"for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase"

Stanley B. Prusiner thumb picture
Stanley B. Prusiner

"for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection"

Dario Fo thumb picture
Dario Fo

"who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden"

International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)  thumb picture
Jody Williams thumb picture
International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) and Jody Williams

"for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines"


David M. Lee thumb picture
Douglas D. Osheroff thumb picture
Robert C. Richardson thumb picture
David M. Lee, Douglas D. Osheroff and Robert C. Richardson

"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"

Peter C. Doherty thumb picture
Rolf M. Zinkernagel thumb picture
Peter C. Doherty and Rolf M. Zinkernagel

"for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"

Wislawa Szymborska thumb picture
Wislawa Szymborska

"for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality"

Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo thumb picture
José Ramos-Horta thumb picture
Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo and José Ramos-Horta

"for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor"

James A. Mirrlees thumb picture
William Vickrey thumb picture
James A. Mirrlees and William Vickrey

"for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information"


The Nobel Prize in Physics 1995

"for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"

Martin L. Perl thumb picture
Martin L. Perl

"for the discovery of the tau lepton"

Frederick Reines thumb picture
Frederick Reines

"for the detection of the neutrino"

Paul J. Crutzen thumb picture
Mario J. Molina thumb picture
F. Sherwood Rowland thumb picture
Paul J. Crutzen, Mario J. Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland

"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"

Edward B. Lewis thumb picture
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard thumb picture
Eric F. Wieschaus thumb picture
Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric F. Wieschaus

"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"

Seamus Heaney thumb picture
Seamus Heaney

"for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past"

Joseph Rotblat thumb picture
Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs  thumb picture
Joseph Rotblat and Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs

"for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms"

Robert E. Lucas Jr. thumb picture
Robert E. Lucas Jr.

"for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy"


The Nobel Prize in Physics 1994

"for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"

Bertram N. Brockhouse thumb picture
Bertram N. Brockhouse

"for the development of neutron spectroscopy"

Clifford G. Shull thumb picture
Clifford G. Shull

"for the development of the neutron diffraction technique"

George A. Olah thumb picture
George A. Olah

"for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"

Alfred G. Gilman thumb picture
Martin Rodbell thumb picture
Alfred G. Gilman and Martin Rodbell

"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"

Kenzaburo Oe thumb picture
Kenzaburo Oe

"who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today"

Yasser Arafat thumb picture
Shimon Peres thumb picture
Yitzhak Rabin thumb picture
Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres and Yitzhak Rabin

"for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East"

John C. Harsanyi thumb picture
John F. Nash Jr. thumb picture
Reinhard Selten thumb picture
John C. Harsanyi, John F. Nash Jr. and Reinhard Selten

"for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"


Russell A. Hulse thumb picture
Joseph H. Taylor Jr. thumb picture
Russell A. Hulse and Joseph H. Taylor Jr.

"for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993

"for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry"

Kary B. Mullis thumb picture
Kary B. Mullis

"for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method"

Michael Smith thumb picture
Michael Smith

"for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies"

Toni Morrison thumb picture
Toni Morrison

"who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality"

Nelson Mandela thumb picture
Frederik Willem de Klerk thumb picture
Nelson Mandela and Frederik Willem de Klerk

"for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa"

Robert W. Fogel thumb picture
Douglass C. North thumb picture
Robert W. Fogel and Douglass C. North

"for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change"


Georges Charpak thumb picture
Georges Charpak

"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"

Rudolph A. Marcus thumb picture
Rudolph A. Marcus

"for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"

Edmond H. Fischer thumb picture
Edwin G. Krebs thumb picture
Edmond H. Fischer and Edwin G. Krebs

"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"

Derek Walcott thumb picture
Derek Walcott

"for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment"

Rigoberta Menchú Tum thumb picture
Rigoberta Menchú Tum

"in recognition of her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples"

Gary S. Becker thumb picture
Gary S. Becker

"for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour"


Pierre-Gilles de Gennes thumb picture
Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

"for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"

Richard R. Ernst thumb picture
Richard R. Ernst

"for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy"

Erwin Neher thumb picture
Bert Sakmann thumb picture
Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann

"for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"

Nadine Gordimer thumb picture
Nadine Gordimer

"who through her magnificent epic writing has - in the words of Alfred Nobel - been of very great benefit to humanity"

Aung San Suu Kyi  thumb picture
Aung San Suu Kyi

"for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights"

Ronald H. Coase thumb picture
Ronald H. Coase

"for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy"


Jerome I. Friedman thumb picture
Henry W. Kendall thumb picture
Richard E. Taylor thumb picture
Jerome I. Friedman, Henry W. Kendall and Richard E. Taylor

"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"

Elias James Corey thumb picture
Elias James Corey

"for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis"

Joseph E. Murray thumb picture
E. Donnall Thomas thumb picture
Joseph E. Murray and E. Donnall Thomas

"for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"

Octavio Paz thumb picture
Octavio Paz

"for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity"

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev thumb picture
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev

"for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community"


Norman F. Ramsey thumb picture
Norman F. Ramsey

"for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks"

Hans G. Dehmelt thumb picture
Wolfgang Paul thumb picture
Hans G. Dehmelt and Wolfgang Paul

"for the development of the ion trap technique"

Sidney Altman thumb picture
Thomas R. Cech thumb picture
Sidney Altman and Thomas R. Cech

"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"

J. Michael Bishop thumb picture
Harold E. Varmus thumb picture
J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus

"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"

Camilo José Cela thumb picture
Camilo José Cela

"for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man's vulnerability"

Trygve Haavelmo thumb picture
Trygve Haavelmo

"for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and his analyses of simultaneous economic structures"


Leon M. Lederman thumb picture
Melvin Schwartz thumb picture
Jack Steinberger thumb picture
Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz and Jack Steinberger

"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"

Johann Deisenhofer thumb picture
Robert Huber thumb picture
Hartmut Michel thumb picture
Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber and Hartmut Michel

"for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"

Sir James W. Black thumb picture
Gertrude B. Elion thumb picture
George H. Hitchings thumb picture
Sir James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion and George H. Hitchings

"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"

Naguib Mahfouz thumb picture
Naguib Mahfouz

"who, through works rich in nuance - now clear-sightedly realistic, now evocatively ambiguous - has formed an Arabian narrative art that applies to all mankind"

Maurice Allais thumb picture
Maurice Allais

"for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources"


J. Georg Bednorz thumb picture
K. Alexander Müller thumb picture
J. Georg Bednorz and K. Alexander Müller

"for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"

Donald J. Cram thumb picture
Jean-Marie Lehn thumb picture
Charles J. Pedersen thumb picture
Donald J. Cram, Jean-Marie Lehn and Charles J. Pedersen

"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"

Susumu Tonegawa thumb picture
Susumu Tonegawa

"for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity"

Joseph Brodsky thumb picture
Joseph Brodsky

"for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity"

Oscar Arias Sánchez thumb picture
Oscar Arias Sánchez

"for his work for peace in Central America, efforts which led to the accord signed in Guatemala on August 7 this year"


Ernst Ruska thumb picture
Ernst Ruska

"for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope"

Gerd Binnig thumb picture
Heinrich Rohrer thumb picture
Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer

"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"

Dudley R. Herschbach thumb picture
Yuan T. Lee thumb picture
John C. Polanyi thumb picture
Dudley R. Herschbach, Yuan T. Lee and John C. Polanyi

"for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"

Wole Soyinka thumb picture
Wole Soyinka

"who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashions the drama of existence"

James M. Buchanan Jr. thumb picture
James M. Buchanan Jr.

"for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making"


Klaus von Klitzing thumb picture
Klaus von Klitzing

"for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"

Herbert A. Hauptman thumb picture
Jerome Karle thumb picture
Herbert A. Hauptman and Jerome Karle

"for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"

Michael S. Brown thumb picture
Joseph L. Goldstein thumb picture
Michael S. Brown and Joseph L. Goldstein

"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"

Claude Simon thumb picture
Claude Simon

"who in his novel combines the poet's and the painter's creativeness with a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition"

Franco Modigliani thumb picture
Franco Modigliani

"for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets"


Carlo Rubbia thumb picture
Simon van der Meer thumb picture
Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer

"for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"

Robert Bruce Merrifield thumb picture
Robert Bruce Merrifield

"for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix"

Niels K. Jerne thumb picture
Georges J.F. Köhler thumb picture
César Milstein thumb picture
Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler and César Milstein

"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"

Jaroslav Seifert thumb picture
Jaroslav Seifert

"for his poetry which endowed with freshness, sensuality and rich inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man"

Richard Stone thumb picture
Richard Stone

"for having made fundamental contributions to the development of systems of national accounts and hence greatly improved the basis for empirical economic analysis"


Subramanyan Chandrasekhar thumb picture
Subramanyan Chandrasekhar

"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars"

William Alfred Fowler thumb picture
William Alfred Fowler

"for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe"

Henry Taube thumb picture
Henry Taube

"for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes"

Barbara McClintock thumb picture
Barbara McClintock

"for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"

William Golding thumb picture
William Golding

"for his novels which, with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today"

Gerard Debreu thumb picture
Gerard Debreu

"for having incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory and for his rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium"


Kenneth G. Wilson thumb picture
Kenneth G. Wilson

"for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"

Aaron Klug thumb picture
Aaron Klug

"for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes"

Sune K. Bergström thumb picture
Bengt I. Samuelsson thumb picture
John R. Vane thumb picture
Sune K. Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson and John R. Vane

"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"

Gabriel García Márquez thumb picture
Gabriel García Márquez

"for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent's life and conflicts"

George J. Stigler thumb picture
George J. Stigler

"for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation"


Nicolaas Bloembergen thumb picture
Arthur Leonard Schawlow thumb picture
Nicolaas Bloembergen and Arthur Leonard Schawlow

"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"

Kai M. Siegbahn thumb picture
Kai M. Siegbahn

"for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"

Kenichi Fukui thumb picture
Roald Hoffmann thumb picture
Kenichi Fukui and Roald Hoffmann

"for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"

Roger W. Sperry thumb picture
Roger W. Sperry

"for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres"

David H. Hubel thumb picture
Torsten N. Wiesel thumb picture
David H. Hubel and Torsten N. Wiesel

"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"

Elias Canetti thumb picture
Elias Canetti

"for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power"

James Tobin thumb picture
James Tobin

"for his analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions, employment, production and prices"


James Watson Cronin thumb picture
Val Logsdon Fitch thumb picture
James Watson Cronin and Val Logsdon Fitch

"for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"

Paul Berg thumb picture
Paul Berg

"for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"

Walter Gilbert thumb picture
Frederick Sanger thumb picture
Walter Gilbert and Frederick Sanger

"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"

Baruj Benacerraf thumb picture
Jean Dausset thumb picture
George D. Snell thumb picture
Baruj Benacerraf, Jean Dausset and George D. Snell

"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"

Czeslaw Milosz thumb picture
Czeslaw Milosz

"who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man's exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts"

Lawrence R. Klein thumb picture
Lawrence R. Klein

"for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies"


Sheldon Lee Glashow thumb picture
Abdus Salam thumb picture
Steven Weinberg thumb picture
Sheldon Lee Glashow, Abdus Salam and Steven Weinberg

"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"

Herbert C. Brown thumb picture
Georg Wittig thumb picture
Herbert C. Brown and Georg Wittig

"for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"

Allan M. Cormack thumb picture
Godfrey N. Hounsfield thumb picture
Allan M. Cormack and Godfrey N. Hounsfield

"for the development of computer assisted tomography"

Odysseus Elytis thumb picture
Odysseus Elytis

"for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man's struggle for freedom and creativeness"

Theodore W. Schultz thumb picture
Sir Arthur Lewis thumb picture
Theodore W. Schultz and Sir Arthur Lewis

"for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries"


Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa thumb picture
Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa

"for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"

Arno Allan Penzias thumb picture
Robert Woodrow Wilson thumb picture
Arno Allan Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson

"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"

Peter D. Mitchell thumb picture
Peter D. Mitchell

"for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory"

Werner Arber thumb picture
Daniel Nathans thumb picture
Hamilton O. Smith thumb picture
Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith

"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"

Isaac Bashevis Singer thumb picture
Isaac Bashevis Singer

"for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life"

Herbert A. Simon thumb picture
Herbert A. Simon

"for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations"


Philip Warren Anderson thumb picture
Sir Nevill Francis Mott thumb picture
John Hasbrouck van Vleck thumb picture
Philip Warren Anderson, Sir Nevill Francis Mott and John Hasbrouck van Vleck

"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"

Ilya Prigogine thumb picture
Ilya Prigogine

"for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"

Roger Guillemin thumb picture
Andrew V. Schally thumb picture
Roger Guillemin and Andrew V. Schally

"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"

Rosalyn Yalow thumb picture
Rosalyn Yalow

"for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"

Vicente Aleixandre thumb picture
Vicente Aleixandre

"for a creative poetic writing which illuminates man's condition in the cosmos and in present-day society, at the same time representing the great renewal of the traditions of Spanish poetry between the wars"

Bertil Ohlin thumb picture
James E. Meade thumb picture
Bertil Ohlin and James E. Meade

"for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements"


Burton Richter thumb picture
Samuel Chao Chung Ting thumb picture
Burton Richter and Samuel Chao Chung Ting

"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"

William N. Lipscomb thumb picture
William N. Lipscomb

"for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding"

Baruch S. Blumberg thumb picture
D. Carleton Gajdusek thumb picture
Baruch S. Blumberg and D. Carleton Gajdusek

"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"

Saul Bellow thumb picture
Saul Bellow

"for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work"

Milton Friedman thumb picture
Milton Friedman

"for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy"


Aage Niels Bohr thumb picture
Ben Roy Mottelson thumb picture
Leo James Rainwater thumb picture
Aage Niels Bohr, Ben Roy Mottelson and Leo James Rainwater

"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"

John Warcup Cornforth thumb picture
John Warcup Cornforth

"for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions"

Vladimir Prelog thumb picture
Vladimir Prelog

"for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions"

David Baltimore thumb picture
Renato Dulbecco thumb picture
Howard Martin Temin thumb picture
David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco and Howard Martin Temin

"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"

Eugenio Montale thumb picture
Eugenio Montale

"for his distinctive poetry which, with great artistic sensitivity, has interpreted human values under the sign of an outlook on life with no illusions"


Sir Martin Ryle thumb picture
Antony Hewish thumb picture
Sir Martin Ryle and Antony Hewish

"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"

Paul J. Flory thumb picture
Paul J. Flory

"for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules"

Albert Claude thumb picture
Christian de Duve thumb picture
George E. Palade thumb picture
Albert Claude, Christian de Duve and George E. Palade

"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"

Eyvind Johnson thumb picture
Eyvind Johnson

"for a narrative art, far-seeing in lands and ages, in the service of freedom"

Harry Martinson thumb picture
Harry Martinson

"for writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos"

Gunnar Myrdal thumb picture
Friedrich August von Hayek thumb picture
Gunnar Myrdal and Friedrich August von Hayek

"for their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena"


Leo Esaki thumb picture
Ivar Giaever thumb picture
Leo Esaki and Ivar Giaever

"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"

Brian David Josephson thumb picture
Brian David Josephson

"for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects"

Ernst Otto Fischer thumb picture
Geoffrey Wilkinson thumb picture
Ernst Otto Fischer and Geoffrey Wilkinson

"for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds"

Karl von Frisch thumb picture
Konrad Lorenz thumb picture
Nikolaas Tinbergen thumb picture
Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz and Nikolaas Tinbergen

"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"

Patrick White thumb picture
Patrick White

"for an epic and psychological narrative art which has introduced a new continent into literature"

Wassily Leontief thumb picture
Wassily Leontief

"for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems"


John Bardeen thumb picture
Leon Neil Cooper thumb picture
John Robert Schrieffer thumb picture
John Bardeen, Leon Neil Cooper and John Robert Schrieffer

"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"

Christian B. Anfinsen thumb picture
Christian B. Anfinsen

"for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"

Stanford Moore thumb picture
William H. Stein thumb picture
Stanford Moore and William H. Stein

"for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"

Gerald M. Edelman thumb picture
Rodney R. Porter thumb picture
Gerald M. Edelman and Rodney R. Porter

"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"

Heinrich Böll thumb picture
Heinrich Böll

"for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1972

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money for 1972 was allocated to the Main Fund.

John R. Hicks thumb picture
Kenneth J. Arrow thumb picture
John R. Hicks and Kenneth J. Arrow

"for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory"


Dennis Gabor thumb picture
Dennis Gabor

"for his invention and development of the holographic method"

Gerhard Herzberg thumb picture
Gerhard Herzberg

"for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals"

Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. thumb picture
Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.

"for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones"

Pablo Neruda thumb picture
Pablo Neruda

"for a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a continent's destiny and dreams"

Simon Kuznets thumb picture
Simon Kuznets

"for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development"


Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén thumb picture
Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén

"for fundamental work and discoveries in magnetohydro-dynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics"

Louis Eugène Félix Néel thumb picture
Louis Eugène Félix Néel

"for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"

Luis F. Leloir thumb picture
Luis F. Leloir

"for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"

Sir Bernard Katz thumb picture
Ulf von Euler thumb picture
Julius Axelrod thumb picture
Sir Bernard Katz, Ulf von Euler and Julius Axelrod

"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"

Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn thumb picture
Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn

"for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature"

Paul A. Samuelson thumb picture
Paul A. Samuelson

"for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science"


Murray Gell-Mann thumb picture
Murray Gell-Mann

"for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"

Derek H. R. Barton thumb picture
Odd Hassel thumb picture
Derek H. R. Barton and Odd Hassel

"for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"

Max Delbrück thumb picture
Alfred D. Hershey thumb picture
Salvador E. Luria thumb picture
Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey and Salvador E. Luria

"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"

Samuel Beckett thumb picture
Samuel Beckett

"for his writing, which - in new forms for the novel and drama - in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation"

Ragnar Frisch thumb picture
Jan Tinbergen thumb picture
Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen

"for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes"


Luis Walter Alvarez thumb picture
Luis Walter Alvarez

"for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"

Lars Onsager thumb picture
Lars Onsager

"for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes"

Robert W. Holley thumb picture
Har Gobind Khorana thumb picture
Marshall W. Nirenberg thumb picture
Robert W. Holley, Har Gobind Khorana and Marshall W. Nirenberg

"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"

Yasunari Kawabata thumb picture
Yasunari Kawabata

"for his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the essence of the Japanese mind"


Hans Albrecht Bethe thumb picture
Hans Albrecht Bethe

"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"

Manfred Eigen thumb picture
Ronald George Wreyford Norrish thumb picture
George Porter thumb picture
Manfred Eigen, Ronald George Wreyford Norrish and George Porter

"for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"

Ragnar Granit thumb picture
Haldan Keffer Hartline thumb picture
George Wald thumb picture
Ragnar Granit, Haldan Keffer Hartline and George Wald

"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"

Miguel Angel Asturias thumb picture
Miguel Angel Asturias

"for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1967

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.


Alfred Kastler thumb picture
Alfred Kastler

"for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"

Robert S. Mulliken thumb picture
Robert S. Mulliken

"for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method"

Peyton Rous thumb picture
Peyton Rous

"for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses"

Charles Brenton Huggins thumb picture
Charles Brenton Huggins

"for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer"

Shmuel Yosef Agnon thumb picture
Shmuel Yosef Agnon

"for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people"

Nelly Sachs thumb picture
Nelly Sachs

"for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1966

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.


Sin-Itiro Tomonaga thumb picture
Julian Schwinger thumb picture
Richard P. Feynman thumb picture
Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger and Richard P. Feynman

"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"

Robert Burns Woodward thumb picture
Robert Burns Woodward

"for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis"

François Jacob thumb picture
André Lwoff thumb picture
Jacques Monod thumb picture
François Jacob, André Lwoff and Jacques Monod

"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"

Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov thumb picture
Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov

"for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic of the Don, he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian people"


Charles Hard Townes thumb picture
Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov thumb picture
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov thumb picture
Charles Hard Townes, Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov and Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov

"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"

Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin thumb picture
Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin

"for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"

Konrad Bloch thumb picture
Feodor Lynen thumb picture
Konrad Bloch and Feodor Lynen

"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"

Jean-Paul Sartre thumb picture
Jean-Paul Sartre

"for his work which, rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom and the quest for truth, has exerted a far-reaching influence on our age"


Eugene Paul Wigner thumb picture
Eugene Paul Wigner

"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"

Maria Goeppert Mayer thumb picture
J. Hans D. Jensen thumb picture
Maria Goeppert Mayer and J. Hans D. Jensen

"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"

Karl Ziegler thumb picture
Giulio Natta thumb picture
Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta

"for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers"

Sir John Carew Eccles thumb picture
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin thumb picture
Andrew Fielding Huxley thumb picture
Sir John Carew Eccles, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and Andrew Fielding Huxley

"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"

Giorgos Seferis thumb picture
Giorgos Seferis

"for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture"


Lev Davidovich Landau thumb picture
Lev Davidovich Landau

"for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"

Max Ferdinand Perutz thumb picture
John Cowdery Kendrew thumb picture
Max Ferdinand Perutz and John Cowdery Kendrew

"for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"

Francis Harry Compton Crick thumb picture
James Dewey Watson thumb picture
Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins thumb picture
Francis Harry Compton Crick, James Dewey Watson and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins

"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"

John Steinbeck thumb picture
John Steinbeck

"for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception"


Robert Hofstadter thumb picture
Robert Hofstadter

"for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"

Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer thumb picture
Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer

"for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name"

Melvin Calvin thumb picture
Melvin Calvin

"for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"

Georg von Békésy thumb picture
Georg von Békésy

"for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"

Ivo Andric thumb picture
Ivo Andric

"for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country"


Donald Arthur Glaser thumb picture
Donald Arthur Glaser

"for the invention of the bubble chamber"

Willard Frank Libby thumb picture
Willard Frank Libby

"for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science"

Saint-John Perse thumb picture
Saint-John Perse

"for the soaring flight and the evocative imagery of his poetry which in a visionary fashion reflects the conditions of our time"


Emilio Gino Segrè thumb picture
Owen Chamberlain thumb picture
Emilio Gino Segrè and Owen Chamberlain

"for their discovery of the antiproton"

Jaroslav Heyrovsky thumb picture
Jaroslav Heyrovsky

"for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis"

Severo Ochoa thumb picture
Arthur Kornberg thumb picture
Severo Ochoa and Arthur Kornberg

"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"

Salvatore Quasimodo thumb picture
Salvatore Quasimodo

"for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times"


Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov thumb picture
Il´ja Mikhailovich Frank thumb picture
Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm thumb picture
Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov, Il´ja Mikhailovich Frank and Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm

"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"

Frederick Sanger thumb picture
Frederick Sanger

"for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin"

George Wells Beadle thumb picture
Edward Lawrie Tatum thumb picture
George Wells Beadle and Edward Lawrie Tatum

"for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"

Joshua Lederberg thumb picture
Joshua Lederberg

"for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria"

Boris Leonidovich Pasternak thumb picture
Boris Leonidovich Pasternak

"for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition"


Chen Ning Yang thumb picture
Tsung-Dao (T.D.) Lee thumb picture
Chen Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao (T.D.) Lee

"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"

Lord (Alexander R.) Todd thumb picture
Lord (Alexander R.) Todd

"for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes"

Daniel Bovet thumb picture
Daniel Bovet

"for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles"

Albert Camus thumb picture
Albert Camus

"for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times"


William Bradford Shockley thumb picture
John Bardeen thumb picture
Walter Houser Brattain thumb picture
William Bradford Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain

"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"

Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood thumb picture
Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov thumb picture
Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood and Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov

"for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions"

André Frédéric Cournand thumb picture
Werner Forssmann thumb picture
Dickinson W. Richards thumb picture
André Frédéric Cournand, Werner Forssmann and Dickinson W. Richards

"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"

Juan Ramón Jiménez thumb picture
Juan Ramón Jiménez

"for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1956

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.


Willis Eugene Lamb thumb picture
Willis Eugene Lamb

"for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum"

Polykarp Kusch thumb picture
Polykarp Kusch

"for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"

Vincent du Vigneaud thumb picture
Vincent du Vigneaud

"for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone"

Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell thumb picture
Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell

"for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes"

Halldór Kiljan Laxness thumb picture
Halldór Kiljan Laxness

"for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1955

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.


Max Born thumb picture
Max Born

"for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"

Walther Bothe thumb picture
Walther Bothe

"for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"

Linus Carl Pauling thumb picture
Linus Carl Pauling

"for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances"

John Franklin Enders thumb picture
Thomas Huckle Weller thumb picture
Frederick Chapman Robbins thumb picture
John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller and Frederick Chapman Robbins

"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"

Ernest Miller Hemingway thumb picture
Ernest Miller Hemingway

"for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style"


Frits Zernike thumb picture
Frits Zernike

"for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"

Hermann Staudinger thumb picture
Hermann Staudinger

"for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry"

Hans Adolf Krebs thumb picture
Hans Adolf Krebs

"for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"

Fritz Albert Lipmann thumb picture
Fritz Albert Lipmann

"for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill thumb picture
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill

"for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values"


Felix Bloch thumb picture
Edward Mills Purcell thumb picture
Felix Bloch and Edward Mills Purcell

"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"

Selman Abraham Waksman thumb picture
Selman Abraham Waksman

"for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"

François Mauriac thumb picture
François Mauriac

"for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life"


Sir John Douglas Cockcroft thumb picture
Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton thumb picture
Sir John Douglas Cockcroft and Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton

"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"

Edwin Mattison McMillan thumb picture
Glenn Theodore Seaborg thumb picture
Edwin Mattison McMillan and Glenn Theodore Seaborg

"for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements"

Max Theiler thumb picture
Max Theiler

"for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"

Pär Fabian Lagerkvist thumb picture
Pär Fabian Lagerkvist

"for the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions confronting mankind"


Cecil Frank Powell thumb picture
Cecil Frank Powell

"for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"

Otto Paul Hermann Diels thumb picture
Kurt Alder thumb picture
Otto Paul Hermann Diels and Kurt Alder

"for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis"

Edward Calvin Kendall thumb picture
Tadeus Reichstein thumb picture
Philip Showalter Hench thumb picture
Edward Calvin Kendall, Tadeus Reichstein and Philip Showalter Hench

"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"

Earl (Bertrand Arthur William) Russell thumb picture
Earl (Bertrand Arthur William) Russell

"in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought"


Hideki Yukawa thumb picture
Hideki Yukawa

"for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"

William Francis Giauque thumb picture
William Francis Giauque

"for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures"

Walter Rudolf Hess thumb picture
Walter Rudolf Hess

"for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs"

Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz thumb picture
Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz

"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses"

William Faulkner thumb picture
William Faulkner

"for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel"


Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett thumb picture
Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett

"for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation"

Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius thumb picture
Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius

"for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins"

Paul Hermann Müller thumb picture
Paul Hermann Müller

"for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods"

Thomas Stearns Eliot thumb picture
Thomas Stearns Eliot

"for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1948

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.


Sir Edward Victor Appleton thumb picture
Sir Edward Victor Appleton

"for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer"

Sir Robert Robinson thumb picture
Sir Robert Robinson

"for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids"

Carl Ferdinand Cori thumb picture
Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz thumb picture
Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz

"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"

Bernardo Alberto Houssay thumb picture
Bernardo Alberto Houssay

"for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar"

André Paul Guillaume Gide thumb picture
André Paul Guillaume Gide

"for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight"


Percy Williams Bridgman thumb picture
Percy Williams Bridgman

"for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics"

James Batcheller Sumner thumb picture
James Batcheller Sumner

"for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized"

John Howard Northrop thumb picture
Wendell Meredith Stanley thumb picture
John Howard Northrop and Wendell Meredith Stanley

"for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"

Hermann Joseph Muller thumb picture
Hermann Joseph Muller

"for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation"

Hermann Hesse thumb picture
Hermann Hesse

"for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style"


Wolfgang Pauli thumb picture
Wolfgang Pauli

"for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle"

Artturi Ilmari Virtanen thumb picture
Artturi Ilmari Virtanen

"for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method"

Sir Alexander Fleming thumb picture
Ernst Boris Chain thumb picture
Sir Howard Walter Florey thumb picture
Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chain and Sir Howard Walter Florey

"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"

Gabriela Mistral thumb picture
Gabriela Mistral

"for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world"


Isidor Isaac Rabi thumb picture
Isidor Isaac Rabi

"for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"

Otto Hahn thumb picture
Otto Hahn

"for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei"

Joseph Erlanger thumb picture
Herbert Spencer Gasser thumb picture
Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser

"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"

Johannes Vilhelm Jensen thumb picture
Johannes Vilhelm Jensen

"for the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with which is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly creative style"


Otto Stern thumb picture
Otto Stern

"for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"

George de Hevesy thumb picture
George de Hevesy

"for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"

Henrik Carl Peter Dam thumb picture
Henrik Carl Peter Dam

"for his discovery of vitamin K"

Edward Adelbert Doisy thumb picture
Edward Adelbert Doisy

"for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1943

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Peace Prize 1943

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.


The Nobel Prize in Physics 1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Peace Prize 1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.


The Nobel Prize in Physics 1941

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1941

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1941

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1941

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Peace Prize 1941

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.


The Nobel Prize in Physics 1940

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1940

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1940

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1940

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Peace Prize 1940

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.


Ernest Orlando Lawrence thumb picture
Ernest Orlando Lawrence

"for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"

Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt thumb picture
Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt

"for his work on sex hormones"

Leopold Ruzicka thumb picture
Leopold Ruzicka

"for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes"

Gerhard Domagk thumb picture
Gerhard Domagk

"for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil"

Frans Eemil Sillanpää thumb picture
Frans Eemil Sillanpää

"for his deep understanding of his country's peasantry and the exquisite art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship with Nature"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1939

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.


Enrico Fermi thumb picture
Enrico Fermi

"for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"

Richard Kuhn thumb picture
Richard Kuhn

"for his work on carotenoids and vitamins"

Corneille Jean François Heymans thumb picture
Corneille Jean François Heymans

"for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration"

Pearl Buck thumb picture
Pearl Buck

"for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces"


Clinton Joseph Davisson thumb picture
George Paget Thomson thumb picture
Clinton Joseph Davisson and George Paget Thomson

"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"

Walter Norman Haworth thumb picture
Walter Norman Haworth

"for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C"

Paul Karrer thumb picture
Paul Karrer

"for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2"

Albert von Szent-Györgyi Nagyrápolt thumb picture
Albert von Szent-Györgyi Nagyrápolt

"for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid"

Roger Martin du Gard thumb picture
Roger Martin du Gard

"for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novel-cycle Les Thibault"


Victor Franz Hess thumb picture
Victor Franz Hess

"for his discovery of cosmic radiation"

Carl David Anderson thumb picture
Carl David Anderson

"for his discovery of the positron"

Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye thumb picture
Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye

"for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases"

Sir Henry Hallett Dale thumb picture
Otto Loewi thumb picture
Sir Henry Hallett Dale and Otto Loewi

"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"

Eugene Gladstone O'Neill thumb picture
Eugene Gladstone O'Neill

"for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy"


James Chadwick thumb picture
James Chadwick

"for the discovery of the neutron"

Frédéric Joliot thumb picture
Irène Joliot-Curie thumb picture
Frédéric Joliot and Irène Joliot-Curie

"in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements"

Hans Spemann thumb picture
Hans Spemann

"for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1935

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.


The Nobel Prize in Physics 1934

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

Harold Clayton Urey thumb picture
Harold Clayton Urey

"for his discovery of heavy hydrogen"

George Hoyt Whipple thumb picture
George Richards Minot thumb picture
William Parry Murphy thumb picture
George Hoyt Whipple, George Richards Minot and William Parry Murphy

"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"

Luigi Pirandello thumb picture
Luigi Pirandello

"for his bold and ingenious revival of dramatic and scenic art"


Erwin Schrödinger thumb picture
Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac thumb picture
Erwin Schrödinger and Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac

"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1933

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

Thomas Hunt Morgan thumb picture
Thomas Hunt Morgan

"for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity"

Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin thumb picture
Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin

"for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing"


Werner Karl Heisenberg thumb picture
Werner Karl Heisenberg

"for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"

Irving Langmuir thumb picture
Irving Langmuir

"for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry"

Sir Charles Scott Sherrington thumb picture
Edgar Douglas Adrian thumb picture
Sir Charles Scott Sherrington and Edgar Douglas Adrian

"for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"

John Galsworthy thumb picture
John Galsworthy

"for his distinguished art of narration which takes its highest form in The Forsyte Saga"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1932

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.


The Nobel Prize in Physics 1931

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

Carl Bosch thumb picture
Friedrich Bergius thumb picture
Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius

"in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"

Otto Heinrich Warburg thumb picture
Otto Heinrich Warburg

"for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"

Erik Axel Karlfeldt thumb picture
Erik Axel Karlfeldt

"The poetry of Erik Axel Karlfeldt"


Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman thumb picture
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman

"for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him"

Hans Fischer thumb picture
Hans Fischer

"for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin"

Karl Landsteiner thumb picture
Karl Landsteiner

"for his discovery of human blood groups"

Sinclair Lewis thumb picture
Sinclair Lewis

"for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters"


Prince Louis-Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie thumb picture
Prince Louis-Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie

"for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons"

Arthur Harden thumb picture
Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin thumb picture
Arthur Harden and Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin

"for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"

Christiaan Eijkman thumb picture
Christiaan Eijkman

"for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin"

Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins thumb picture
Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins

"for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins"

Thomas Mann thumb picture
Thomas Mann

"principally for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature"


Owen Willans Richardson thumb picture
Owen Willans Richardson

"for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him"

Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus thumb picture
Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus

"for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins"

Sigrid Undset thumb picture
Sigrid Undset

"principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1928

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.


Arthur Holly Compton thumb picture
Arthur Holly Compton

"for his discovery of the effect named after him"

Charles Thomson Rees Wilson thumb picture
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson

"for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour"

Heinrich Otto Wieland thumb picture
Heinrich Otto Wieland

"for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances"

Julius Wagner-Jauregg thumb picture
Julius Wagner-Jauregg

"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica"

Henri Bergson thumb picture
Henri Bergson

"in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented"


Jean Baptiste Perrin thumb picture
Jean Baptiste Perrin

"for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium"

The (Theodor) Svedberg thumb picture
The (Theodor) Svedberg

"for his work on disperse systems"

Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger thumb picture
Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger

"for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma"

Grazia Deledda thumb picture
Grazia Deledda

"for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general"


James Franck thumb picture
Gustav Ludwig Hertz thumb picture
James Franck and Gustav Ludwig Hertz

"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"

Richard Adolf Zsigmondy thumb picture
Richard Adolf Zsigmondy

"for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1925

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

George Bernard Shaw thumb picture
George Bernard Shaw

"for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty"


Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn thumb picture
Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn

"for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1924

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

Willem Einthoven thumb picture
Willem Einthoven

"for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram"

Wladyslaw Stanislaw Reymont thumb picture
Wladyslaw Stanislaw Reymont

"for his great national epic, The Peasants"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1924

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.


Robert Andrews Millikan thumb picture
Robert Andrews Millikan

"for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"

Fritz Pregl thumb picture
Fritz Pregl

"for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances"

William Butler Yeats thumb picture
William Butler Yeats

"for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1923

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.


Niels Henrik David Bohr thumb picture
Niels Henrik David Bohr

"for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"

Francis William Aston thumb picture
Francis William Aston

"for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule"

Archibald Vivian Hill thumb picture
Archibald Vivian Hill

"for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle"

Otto Fritz Meyerhof thumb picture
Otto Fritz Meyerhof

"for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"

Jacinto Benavente thumb picture
Jacinto Benavente

"for the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama"


Albert Einstein thumb picture
Albert Einstein

"for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"

Frederick Soddy thumb picture
Frederick Soddy

"for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1921

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

Anatole France thumb picture
Anatole France

"in recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, grace, and a true Gallic temperament"


Charles Edouard Guillaume thumb picture
Charles Edouard Guillaume

"in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys"

Walther Hermann Nernst thumb picture
Walther Hermann Nernst

"in recognition of his work in thermochemistry"

Schack August Steenberg Krogh thumb picture
Schack August Steenberg Krogh

"for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism"

Knut Pedersen Hamsun thumb picture
Knut Pedersen Hamsun

"for his monumental work, Growth of the Soil"


Johannes Stark thumb picture
Johannes Stark

"for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1919

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

Jules Bordet thumb picture
Jules Bordet

"for his discoveries relating to immunity"

Carl Friedrich Georg Spitteler thumb picture
Carl Friedrich Georg Spitteler

"in special appreciation of his epic, Olympian Spring"


Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck thumb picture
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck

"in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta"

Fritz Haber thumb picture
Fritz Haber

"for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1918

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1918

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Peace Prize 1918

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.


Charles Glover Barkla thumb picture
Charles Glover Barkla

"for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1917

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1917

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

Karl Adolph Gjellerup thumb picture
Karl Adolph Gjellerup

"for his varied and rich poetry, which is inspired by lofty ideals"

Henrik Pontoppidan thumb picture
Henrik Pontoppidan

"for his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark"


The Nobel Prize in Physics 1916

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1916

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1916

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

Carl Gustaf Verner von Heidenstam thumb picture
Carl Gustaf Verner von Heidenstam

"in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1916

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.


Sir William Henry Bragg thumb picture
William Lawrence Bragg thumb picture
Sir William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg

"for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays"

Richard Martin Willstätter thumb picture
Richard Martin Willstätter

"for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1915

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

Romain Rolland thumb picture
Romain Rolland

"as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1915

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.


Max von Laue thumb picture
Max von Laue

"for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals"

Theodore William Richards thumb picture
Theodore William Richards

"in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements"

Robert Bárány thumb picture
Robert Bárány

"for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1914

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Peace Prize 1914

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.


Heike Kamerlingh Onnes thumb picture
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes

"for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium"

Alfred Werner thumb picture
Alfred Werner

"in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry"

Charles Robert Richet thumb picture
Charles Robert Richet

"in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis"

Rabindranath Tagore thumb picture
Rabindranath Tagore

"because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West"


Nils Gustaf Dalén thumb picture
Nils Gustaf Dalén

"for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys"

Victor Grignard thumb picture
Victor Grignard

"for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry"

Paul Sabatier thumb picture
Paul Sabatier

"for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent years"

Alexis Carrel thumb picture
Alexis Carrel

"in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs"

Gerhart Johann Robert Hauptmann thumb picture
Gerhart Johann Robert Hauptmann

"primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art"


Wilhelm Wien thumb picture
Wilhelm Wien

"for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat"

Marie Curie, née Sklodowska thumb picture
Marie Curie, née Sklodowska

"in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element"

Allvar Gullstrand thumb picture
Allvar Gullstrand

"for his work on the dioptrics of the eye"

Count Maurice (Mooris) Polidore Marie Bernhard Maeterlinck thumb picture
Count Maurice (Mooris) Polidore Marie Bernhard Maeterlinck

"in appreciation of his many-sided literary activities, and especially of his dramatic works, which are distinguished by a wealth of imagination and by a poetic fancy, which reveals, sometimes in the guise of a fairy tale, a deep inspiration, while in a mysterious way they appeal to the readers' own feelings and stimulate their imaginations"


Johannes Diderik van der Waals thumb picture
Johannes Diderik van der Waals

"for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids"

Otto Wallach thumb picture
Otto Wallach

"in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"

Albrecht Kossel thumb picture
Albrecht Kossel

"in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances"

Paul Johann Ludwig Heyse thumb picture
Paul Johann Ludwig Heyse

"as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories"


Guglielmo Marconi thumb picture
Karl Ferdinand Braun thumb picture
Guglielmo Marconi and Karl Ferdinand Braun

"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"

Wilhelm Ostwald thumb picture
Wilhelm Ostwald

"in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction"

Emil Theodor Kocher thumb picture
Emil Theodor Kocher

"for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"

Selma Ottilia Lovisa Lagerlöf thumb picture
Selma Ottilia Lovisa Lagerlöf

"in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings"


Gabriel Lippmann thumb picture
Gabriel Lippmann

"for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"

Ernest Rutherford thumb picture
Ernest Rutherford

"for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances"

Rudolf Christoph Eucken thumb picture
Rudolf Christoph Eucken

"in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life"


Albert Abraham Michelson thumb picture
Albert Abraham Michelson

"for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"

Eduard Buchner thumb picture
Eduard Buchner

"for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation"

Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran thumb picture
Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran

"in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases"

Rudyard Kipling thumb picture
Rudyard Kipling

"in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author"


Joseph John Thomson thumb picture
Joseph John Thomson

"in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"

Henri Moissan thumb picture
Henri Moissan

"in recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace called after him"

Camillo Golgi thumb picture
Santiago Ramón y Cajal thumb picture
Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal

"in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"

Giosuè Carducci thumb picture
Giosuè Carducci

"not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces"


Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer thumb picture
Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer

"in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"

Robert Koch thumb picture
Robert Koch

"for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis"

Henryk Sienkiewicz thumb picture
Henryk Sienkiewicz

"because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer"


Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt) thumb picture
Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt)

"for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"

Sir William Ramsay thumb picture
Sir William Ramsay

"in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system"

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov thumb picture
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov

"in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged"

Frédéric Mistral thumb picture
Frédéric Mistral

"in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist"

José Echegaray y Eizaguirre thumb picture
José Echegaray y Eizaguirre

"in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama"


Antoine Henri Becquerel thumb picture
Antoine Henri Becquerel

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity"

Pierre Curie thumb picture
Marie Curie, née Sklodowska thumb picture
Pierre Curie and Marie Curie, née Sklodowska

"in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"

Svante August Arrhenius thumb picture
Svante August Arrhenius

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation"

Niels Ryberg Finsen thumb picture
Niels Ryberg Finsen

"in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science"

Bjørnstjerne Martinus Bjørnson thumb picture
Bjørnstjerne Martinus Bjørnson

"as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit"


Hendrik Antoon Lorentz thumb picture
Pieter Zeeman thumb picture
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz and Pieter Zeeman

"in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"

Hermann Emil Fischer thumb picture
Hermann Emil Fischer

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses"

Ronald Ross thumb picture
Ronald Ross

"for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it"

Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen thumb picture
Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen

"the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A history of Rome"


Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen thumb picture
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him"

Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff thumb picture
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions"

Emil Adolf von Behring thumb picture
Emil Adolf von Behring

"for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths"

Sully Prudhomme thumb picture
Sully Prudhomme

"in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart and intellect"

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