"for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"
"for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures"
"for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs"
"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses"
"for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel"