Lists of Nobel Prizes and Laureates

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Lists of Nobel Prizes and Laureates

Show with photos

Collage: Erwin Schrödinger, Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr and Henri Becquerel

All Nobel Prizes in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded 111 times to 207 Nobel Laureates between 1901 and 2017. John Bardeen is the only Nobel Laureate who has been awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics twice, in 1956 and 1972. This means that a total of 206 individuals have received the Nobel Prize in Physics. Click on the links to get more information.

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2018

The 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics has not been awarded yet. It will be announced on Tuesday 2 October, 11:45 a.m. at the earliest.

Rainer Weiss thumb picture
Barry C. Barish thumb picture
Kip S. Thorne thumb picture
Rainer Weiss, Barry C. Barish and Kip S. Thorne

"for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves"

David J. Thouless thumb picture
F. Duncan M. Haldane thumb picture
J. Michael Kosterlitz thumb picture
David J. Thouless, F. Duncan M. Haldane and J. Michael Kosterlitz

"for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter"

Takaaki Kajita thumb picture
Arthur B. McDonald thumb picture
Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B. McDonald

"for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass"

Isamu Akasaki thumb picture
Hiroshi Amano thumb picture
Shuji Nakamura thumb picture
Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura

"for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources"

François Englert thumb picture
Peter W. Higgs thumb picture
François Englert and Peter W. Higgs

"for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"

Serge Haroche thumb picture
David J. Wineland thumb picture
Serge Haroche and David J. Wineland

"for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"

Saul Perlmutter thumb picture
Brian P. Schmidt thumb picture
Adam G. Riess thumb picture
Saul Perlmutter, Brian P. Schmidt and Adam G. Riess

"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"

Andre Geim thumb picture
Konstantin Novoselov thumb picture
Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov

"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"

Charles Kuen Kao thumb picture
Charles Kuen Kao

"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication"

Willard S. Boyle thumb picture
George E. Smith thumb picture
Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith

"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit - the CCD sensor"

Yoichiro Nambu thumb picture
Yoichiro Nambu

"for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics"

Makoto Kobayashi thumb picture
Toshihide Maskawa thumb picture
Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa

"for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"

Albert Fert thumb picture
Peter Grünberg thumb picture
Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg

"for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance"

John C. Mather thumb picture
George F. Smoot thumb picture
John C. Mather and George F. Smoot

"for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"

Roy J. Glauber thumb picture
Roy J. Glauber

"for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"

John L. Hall thumb picture
Theodor W. Hänsch thumb picture
John L. Hall and Theodor W. Hänsch

"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"

David J. Gross thumb picture
H. David Politzer thumb picture
Frank Wilczek thumb picture
David J. Gross, H. David Politzer and Frank Wilczek

"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"

Alexei A. Abrikosov thumb picture
Vitaly L. Ginzburg thumb picture
Anthony J. Leggett thumb picture
Alexei A. Abrikosov, Vitaly L. Ginzburg and Anthony J. Leggett

"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"

Raymond Davis Jr. thumb picture
Masatoshi Koshiba thumb picture
Raymond Davis Jr. and Masatoshi Koshiba

"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"

Riccardo Giacconi thumb picture
Riccardo Giacconi

"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"

Eric A. Cornell thumb picture
Wolfgang Ketterle thumb picture
Carl E. Wieman thumb picture
Eric A. Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle and Carl E. Wieman

"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000

"for basic work on information and communication technology"

Zhores I. Alferov thumb picture
Herbert Kroemer thumb picture
Zhores I. Alferov and Herbert Kroemer

"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics"

Jack S. Kilby thumb picture
Jack S. Kilby

"for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"

Gerardus 't Hooft thumb picture
Martinus J.G. Veltman thumb picture
Gerardus 't Hooft and Martinus J.G. Veltman

"for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"

Robert B. Laughlin thumb picture
Horst L. Störmer thumb picture
Daniel C. Tsui thumb picture
Robert B. Laughlin, Horst L. Störmer and Daniel C. Tsui

"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"

Steven Chu thumb picture
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji thumb picture
William D. Phillips thumb picture
Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and William D. Phillips

"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"

David M. Lee thumb picture
Douglas D. Osheroff thumb picture
Robert C. Richardson thumb picture
David M. Lee, Douglas D. Osheroff and Robert C. Richardson

"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1995

"for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"

Martin L. Perl thumb picture
Martin L. Perl

"for the discovery of the tau lepton"

Frederick Reines thumb picture
Frederick Reines

"for the detection of the neutrino"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1994

"for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"

Bertram N. Brockhouse thumb picture
Bertram N. Brockhouse

"for the development of neutron spectroscopy"

Clifford G. Shull thumb picture
Clifford G. Shull

"for the development of the neutron diffraction technique"

Russell A. Hulse thumb picture
Joseph H. Taylor Jr. thumb picture
Russell A. Hulse and Joseph H. Taylor Jr.

"for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"

Georges Charpak thumb picture
Georges Charpak

"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"

Pierre-Gilles de Gennes thumb picture
Pierre-Gilles de Gennes

"for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"

Jerome I. Friedman thumb picture
Henry W. Kendall thumb picture
Richard E. Taylor thumb picture
Jerome I. Friedman, Henry W. Kendall and Richard E. Taylor

"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"

Norman F. Ramsey thumb picture
Norman F. Ramsey

"for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks"

Hans G. Dehmelt thumb picture
Wolfgang Paul thumb picture
Hans G. Dehmelt and Wolfgang Paul

"for the development of the ion trap technique"

Leon M. Lederman thumb picture
Melvin Schwartz thumb picture
Jack Steinberger thumb picture
Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz and Jack Steinberger

"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"

J. Georg Bednorz thumb picture
K. Alexander Müller thumb picture
J. Georg Bednorz and K. Alexander Müller

"for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"

Ernst Ruska thumb picture
Ernst Ruska

"for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope"

Gerd Binnig thumb picture
Heinrich Rohrer thumb picture
Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer

"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"

Klaus von Klitzing thumb picture
Klaus von Klitzing

"for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"

Carlo Rubbia thumb picture
Simon van der Meer thumb picture
Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer

"for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"

Subramanyan Chandrasekhar thumb picture
Subramanyan Chandrasekhar

"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars"

William Alfred Fowler thumb picture
William Alfred Fowler

"for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe"

Kenneth G. Wilson thumb picture
Kenneth G. Wilson

"for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"

Nicolaas Bloembergen thumb picture
Arthur Leonard Schawlow thumb picture
Nicolaas Bloembergen and Arthur Leonard Schawlow

"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"

Kai M. Siegbahn thumb picture
Kai M. Siegbahn

"for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"

James Watson Cronin thumb picture
Val Logsdon Fitch thumb picture
James Watson Cronin and Val Logsdon Fitch

"for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"

Sheldon Lee Glashow thumb picture
Abdus Salam thumb picture
Steven Weinberg thumb picture
Sheldon Lee Glashow, Abdus Salam and Steven Weinberg

"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"

Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa thumb picture
Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa

"for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"

Arno Allan Penzias thumb picture
Robert Woodrow Wilson thumb picture
Arno Allan Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson

"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"

Philip Warren Anderson thumb picture
Sir Nevill Francis Mott thumb picture
John Hasbrouck van Vleck thumb picture
Philip Warren Anderson, Sir Nevill Francis Mott and John Hasbrouck van Vleck

"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"

Burton Richter thumb picture
Samuel Chao Chung Ting thumb picture
Burton Richter and Samuel Chao Chung Ting

"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"

Aage Niels Bohr thumb picture
Ben Roy Mottelson thumb picture
Leo James Rainwater thumb picture
Aage Niels Bohr, Ben Roy Mottelson and Leo James Rainwater

"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"

Sir Martin Ryle thumb picture
Antony Hewish thumb picture
Sir Martin Ryle and Antony Hewish

"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"

Leo Esaki thumb picture
Ivar Giaever thumb picture
Leo Esaki and Ivar Giaever

"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"

Brian David Josephson thumb picture
Brian David Josephson

"for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects"

John Bardeen thumb picture
Leon Neil Cooper thumb picture
John Robert Schrieffer thumb picture
John Bardeen, Leon Neil Cooper and John Robert Schrieffer

"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"

Dennis Gabor thumb picture
Dennis Gabor

"for his invention and development of the holographic method"

Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén thumb picture
Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén

"for fundamental work and discoveries in magnetohydro-dynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics"

Louis Eugène Félix Néel thumb picture
Louis Eugène Félix Néel

"for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"

Murray Gell-Mann thumb picture
Murray Gell-Mann

"for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"

Luis Walter Alvarez thumb picture
Luis Walter Alvarez

"for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"

Hans Albrecht Bethe thumb picture
Hans Albrecht Bethe

"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"

Alfred Kastler thumb picture
Alfred Kastler

"for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"

Sin-Itiro Tomonaga thumb picture
Julian Schwinger thumb picture
Richard P. Feynman thumb picture
Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger and Richard P. Feynman

"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"

Charles Hard Townes thumb picture
Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov thumb picture
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov thumb picture
Charles Hard Townes, Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov and Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov

"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"

Eugene Paul Wigner thumb picture
Eugene Paul Wigner

"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"

Maria Goeppert Mayer thumb picture
J. Hans D. Jensen thumb picture
Maria Goeppert Mayer and J. Hans D. Jensen

"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"

Lev Davidovich Landau thumb picture
Lev Davidovich Landau

"for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"

Robert Hofstadter thumb picture
Robert Hofstadter

"for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"

Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer thumb picture
Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer

"for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name"

Donald Arthur Glaser thumb picture
Donald Arthur Glaser

"for the invention of the bubble chamber"

Emilio Gino Segrè thumb picture
Owen Chamberlain thumb picture
Emilio Gino Segrè and Owen Chamberlain

"for their discovery of the antiproton"

Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov thumb picture
Il´ja Mikhailovich Frank thumb picture
Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm thumb picture
Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov, Il´ja Mikhailovich Frank and Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm

"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"

Chen Ning Yang thumb picture
Tsung-Dao (T.D.) Lee thumb picture
Chen Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao (T.D.) Lee

"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"

William Bradford Shockley thumb picture
John Bardeen thumb picture
Walter Houser Brattain thumb picture
William Bradford Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain

"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"

Willis Eugene Lamb thumb picture
Willis Eugene Lamb

"for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum"

Polykarp Kusch thumb picture
Polykarp Kusch

"for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"

Max Born thumb picture
Max Born

"for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"

Walther Bothe thumb picture
Walther Bothe

"for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"

Frits Zernike thumb picture
Frits Zernike

"for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"

Felix Bloch thumb picture
Edward Mills Purcell thumb picture
Felix Bloch and Edward Mills Purcell

"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"

Sir John Douglas Cockcroft thumb picture
Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton thumb picture
Sir John Douglas Cockcroft and Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton

"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"

Cecil Frank Powell thumb picture
Cecil Frank Powell

"for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"

Hideki Yukawa thumb picture
Hideki Yukawa

"for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"

Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett thumb picture
Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett

"for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation"

Sir Edward Victor Appleton thumb picture
Sir Edward Victor Appleton

"for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer"

Percy Williams Bridgman thumb picture
Percy Williams Bridgman

"for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics"

Wolfgang Pauli thumb picture
Wolfgang Pauli

"for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle"

Isidor Isaac Rabi thumb picture
Isidor Isaac Rabi

"for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"

Otto Stern thumb picture
Otto Stern

"for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1941

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1940

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

Ernest Orlando Lawrence thumb picture
Ernest Orlando Lawrence

"for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"

Enrico Fermi thumb picture
Enrico Fermi

"for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"

Clinton Joseph Davisson thumb picture
George Paget Thomson thumb picture
Clinton Joseph Davisson and George Paget Thomson

"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"

Victor Franz Hess thumb picture
Victor Franz Hess

"for his discovery of cosmic radiation"

Carl David Anderson thumb picture
Carl David Anderson

"for his discovery of the positron"

James Chadwick thumb picture
James Chadwick

"for the discovery of the neutron"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1934

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

Erwin Schrödinger thumb picture
Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac thumb picture
Erwin Schrödinger and Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac

"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"

Werner Karl Heisenberg thumb picture
Werner Karl Heisenberg

"for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1931

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman thumb picture
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman

"for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him"

Prince Louis-Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie thumb picture
Prince Louis-Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie

"for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons"

Owen Willans Richardson thumb picture
Owen Willans Richardson

"for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him"

Arthur Holly Compton thumb picture
Arthur Holly Compton

"for his discovery of the effect named after him"

Charles Thomson Rees Wilson thumb picture
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson

"for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour"

Jean Baptiste Perrin thumb picture
Jean Baptiste Perrin

"for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium"

James Franck thumb picture
Gustav Ludwig Hertz thumb picture
James Franck and Gustav Ludwig Hertz

"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"

Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn thumb picture
Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn

"for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy"

Robert Andrews Millikan thumb picture
Robert Andrews Millikan

"for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"

Niels Henrik David Bohr thumb picture
Niels Henrik David Bohr

"for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"

Albert Einstein thumb picture
Albert Einstein

"for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"

Charles Edouard Guillaume thumb picture
Charles Edouard Guillaume

"in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys"

Johannes Stark thumb picture
Johannes Stark

"for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields"

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck thumb picture
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck

"in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta"

Charles Glover Barkla thumb picture
Charles Glover Barkla

"for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1916

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

Sir William Henry Bragg thumb picture
William Lawrence Bragg thumb picture
Sir William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg

"for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays"

Max von Laue thumb picture
Max von Laue

"for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals"

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes thumb picture
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes

"for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium"

Nils Gustaf Dalén thumb picture
Nils Gustaf Dalén

"for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys"

Wilhelm Wien thumb picture
Wilhelm Wien

"for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat"

Johannes Diderik van der Waals thumb picture
Johannes Diderik van der Waals

"for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids"

Guglielmo Marconi thumb picture
Karl Ferdinand Braun thumb picture
Guglielmo Marconi and Karl Ferdinand Braun

"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"

Gabriel Lippmann thumb picture
Gabriel Lippmann

"for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"

Albert Abraham Michelson thumb picture
Albert Abraham Michelson

"for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"

Joseph John Thomson thumb picture
Joseph John Thomson

"in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"

Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt) thumb picture
Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt)

"for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"

Antoine Henri Becquerel thumb picture
Antoine Henri Becquerel

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity"

Pierre Curie thumb picture
Marie Curie, née Sklodowska thumb picture
Pierre Curie and Marie Curie, née Sklodowska

"in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"

Hendrik Antoon Lorentz thumb picture
Pieter Zeeman thumb picture
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz and Pieter Zeeman

"in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen thumb picture
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him"

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