Alfred Nobel, the man behind the Nobel Prize, wrote in his will 1895: “It is my express wish that in awarding the prizes no consideration be given to the nationality of the candidates, but that the most worthy shall receive the prize”. Furthermore, information regarding nationality is often difficult to determine. Consequently, the Nobel Laureates are here listed by country of birth and not by nationality.
In this list, the country of birth refers to the name of the country at the time when the Nobel Laureate was born. For instance, to look for Nobel Laureates born in India you need to include also British India, British India (now Bangladesh) and India (now Pakistan). Austria, Germany, Poland and Russia are other examples of countries where the borders have changed.