Roger Guillemin – Banquet speech

Roger Guillemin’s speech at the Nobel Banquet, December 10, 1977

Your Majesties, Your Royal Highnesses, Ladies and Gentlemen,

Speaking in the name of my colleagues, Rosalyn Yalow and Andrew Schally, may I express to you our gratitude for the honor you are doing all of us in ennobling this ceremony by your royal presence.

A few days ago, thinking ahead about what I would say on this rather unique occasion, I was listening to the voice of Albert Camus in the Nobel Lecture he gave 20 years ago. Camus gave a moving description of what he considered to be the mission of an artist, a writer as he was and also of his understanding of the role of the artist in his responsibility to society.

I was as surprised as moved to realize that what Camus was describing were my own views of the scientist in his ethics of science and his role to society. Yes, the commitments are the same for the scientist as they are for the artist, when both are worthy of the name. That must already have been in the mind of Alfred Nobel who chose to associate literature and Science in his legacy. Please see us here tonight, as the representatives of modern medicine either as an art or as a science or better still, as both art and science.

From Les Prix Nobel. The Nobel Prizes 1977, Editor Wilhelm Odelberg, [Nobel Foundation], Stockholm, 1978

 

Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 1977

Roger Guillemin – Other resources

Links to other sites

Roger Guillemin’s page at SALK 

Roger Guillemin – Nobel Lecture

Nobel Lecture, December 8, 1977

Peptides in the Brain. The New Endocrinology of the Neuron

Read the Nobel Lecture
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Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 1977

From Nobel Lectures, Physiology or Medicine 1971-1980, Editor Jan Lindsten, World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore, 1992

Roger Guillemin – Facts

Roger Guillemin – Biographical

I was born in France on January 11, 1924 in the small town of Dijon, the capital of Burgundy. I was educated there in the public schools and the lycée. I entered medical school in Dijon in 1943 and received the M.D. degree from the Faculté de Médecine of Lyon in 1949, – the two schools were then administratively connected, with the larger school of Lyon granting the degrees. All my medical studies and training were totally clinically oriented, with three years of what we could call rotating internship. There was no laboratory facility of any sort in Dijon, except for gross anatomy. Dark years of no fun youth these were; France had fallen to the Germans in 1940; Dijon was from then on occupied by the German army until liberation days in 1944.

During these five years of medical studies, I had always been interested in endocrinology, probably because two of my best teachers of clinical medicine, P. Etienne-Martin and J. Charpy were themselves interested in what were in those days the early concepts of endocrinology and the beginning logical therapy it appeared to offer. I always hoped that somehow I could one day work in a laboratory. In France you had terminated your medical studies after 5 years of curriculum; you could then practice medicine – which I did for some time. To obtain the degree of Doctor in Medicine you had to write and defend a dissertation, a thesis; that was usually pro forma. I decided, however, to write a dissertation for the M.D. degree that I would enjoy, hopefully on some work I could perform in a laboratory.

One day, I learned that Hans Selye would lecture in Paris on his alarm reaction and the endocrinology of the general adaptation syndrome. I went to hear him. The magnetism of the man was extraordinary. I went to talk to him after one of his lectures. A few months later I was in Selye’s newly created Institute of Experimental Medicine and Surgery at the University of Montreal, with a modest fellowship from Selye’s funds. In one year I completed some experimental work on desoxycorticosterone-induced hypertension in bilaterally nephrectomized rats kept alive for several weeks by peritoneal dialysis; that constituted the material for the thesis necessary in the French system to obtain the M.D. degree, which I obtained in Lyon upon the defense of that dissertation, in 1949. Not much interested in the academism and formalism of a research career within the French system that was then open to me, I returned to Selye’s Institute, and three years later eventually obtained a Ph.D. degree in physiology in 1953. In these four years I had learned experimental endocrinology in a remarkable program jointly conducted between McGill University and the University of Montreal. In 1953, I joined the staff of the Department of Physiology at the Baylor University College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, as a young assistant professor. I taught physiology at Baylor College of Medicine for 18 years, until 1970. While in Selye’s department, I had become interested in the problem of the physiological control of the secretion of the pituitary gland as it was involved in the acute response to stress. This was due particularly to friendly contacts with Claude Fortier and to a long visit by Geoffrey W. Harris from London.

I have recounted in some details in a chapter of Volume 2, of Pioneers in Neuroendocrinology, J. Meites (ed.), Plenum Press Publ., 1978, how I became more and more involved in the search for the chemical mediators of hypothalamic origin, suspected to control the functions of the pituitary gland; how Schally came to me at Baylor from the laboratory of Murray Saffran at McGill immediately after he had obtained there his Ph.D. degree in biochemistry – as we both thought that we would solve in no time the problem of the nature of CRF (the corticotropin releasing factor); how I went back to France in 1960, – on academic promises that did not materialize, thus returned to Houston in 1963, and later, in 1970, went to the Salk Institute to establish our present Laboratories for Neuroendocrinology. That chapter written in a light anecdotal manner, along with two reviews, one concerning the isolation and characterization of the first of the hypothalamic releasing factor, TRF (in Vitamins and Hormones, 29, 1-39, 1971), the other concerning the isolation of the luteinizing hormone releasing factor (in Am. J. Obs. and Gynecol., 129, 214-218, 1977) will give the interested reader a good historical description of these early years of, indeed, true pioneering in neuroendocrinology.

I served for 11 years on several advisory groups (Study Sections) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) – an experience that was as rewarding as it was exhausting – as a member of the Council of the American Endocrine Society from 1969-1973.

I was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, in 1974, a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1976. I have been honored by several national and international scientific recognitions: among which The Gairdner International Award, Toronto, Canada, 1974; The Dickson Prize in Medicine, The University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1976; the Passano Award in the Medical Sciences, Baltimore, Maryland, 1976; the Lasker Award in Basic Sciences, New York, 1975; and recently the National Medal of Science presented by the President of the USA.

I have received honorary degrees, from the University of Rochester (D.Sc.), 1976; the University of Chicago (D.Sc.), 1977; and the Légion d’Honneur from the French government in 1973.

I consider as major honors to have been asked to deliver numerous memorial lectures, in particular the Harvey Lecture, The Rockefeller University, New York, 1974; the Jane Russell Wilhelmi Memorial Lecture, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, 1976; the Geoffrey W. Harris Memorial Lecture, International Congress of Endocrinology, Hamburg, Germany, 1976; The Gregory Pincus Memorial Lecture, The Laurentian Hormone Conference, 1976; The Herbert M. Evans, Memorial Lecture, University of California in San Francisco, 1977.

In Houston, in Paris, in La Jolla, where I set up shop – sometime simultaneously as in the days of commuting between Paris and Houston – I have had the extraordinary privilege to work with wonderful collaborators some so much more knowledgeable in their own field than I was (or still am), all full of enthusiasm and sharing common ethics of science. The work recognized in this Nobel Prize was a group effort and achievement. I started writing the list of these colleagues, collaborators, students who worked with me, starting in 1953; I stopped when I realized more than one hundred names were involved. Of unique roles and significance in the saga of the hypothalamic hormones in which I was involved, I must call to the lime light Edvart Sakiz, now in Paris, Roger Burgus, now in La Jolla, Wylie Vale who came to me as a graduate student, now in La Jolla, Nicholas Ling and Jean Rivier, both now in La Jolla. They, and their own students, are and will be the future of this expanding field or research.

My wife is a musician of talent and, so far, five of our six children are already in artistic careers or show a definite preference for artistic endeavors; one only, may be a biologist some day. And all that is fine with me. Since 1970 when we came to the Salk Institute, we have lived in La Jolla, a suburb of San Diego, in a Mediterranean house which we have filled, if not overfilled, with many contemporary paintings French and American, sculptures and potteries mostly from pre-Columbian Mexico and also from New Guinea. Several keyboards and string instruments are also part of the enjoyable living environment of that happy house.

From Les Prix Nobel. The Nobel Prizes 1977, Editor Wilhelm Odelberg, [Nobel Foundation], Stockholm, 1978

This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and later published in the book series Les Prix Nobel/ Nobel Lectures/The Nobel Prizes. The information is sometimes updated with an addendum submitted by the Laureate.

 

Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 1977

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2015

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2014

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2013

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François Englert and Peter W. Higgs
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2008

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The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008

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Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier
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The Nobel Prize in Literature 2008

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The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2008

Paul Krugman
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2007

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007

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2006

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006

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The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006

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The Nobel Peace Prize 2006

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The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2006

Edmund S. Phelps
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2005

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005

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The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005

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The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005

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The Nobel Prize in Literature 2005

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The Nobel Peace Prize 2005

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The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2005

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2004

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004

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The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004

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The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004

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The Nobel Prize in Literature 2004

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The Nobel Peace Prize 2004

Wangari Muta Maathai
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The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2004

Finn E. Kydland and Edward C. Prescott
“for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles”

2003

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003

Alexei A. Abrikosov, Vitaly L. Ginzburg and Anthony J. Leggett
“for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003

“for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes”

Peter Agre
“for the discovery of water channels”

Roderick MacKinnon
“for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003

Paul C. Lauterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield
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The Nobel Prize in Literature 2003

John M. Coetzee
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The Nobel Peace Prize 2003

Shirin Ebadi
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The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2003

Robert F. Engle III
“for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH)”

Clive W.J. Granger
“for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends (cointegration)”

2002

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002

Raymond Davis Jr. and Masatoshi Koshiba
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Riccardo Giacconi
“for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002

“for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules”

John B. Fenn and Koichi Tanaka
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Kurt Wüthrich
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The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002

Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz and John E. Sulston
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The Nobel Prize in Literature 2002

Imre Kertész
“for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2002

Jimmy Carter
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The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2002

Daniel Kahneman
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Vernon L. Smith
“for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms”

2001

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001

Eric A. Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle and Carl E. Wieman
“for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001

William S. Knowles and Ryoji Noyori
“for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions”

K. Barry Sharpless
“for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001

Leland H. Hartwell, Tim Hunt and Sir Paul M. Nurse
“for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2001

Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul
“for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2001

United Nations (UN) and Kofi Annan
“for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world”

2000

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000

“for basic work on information and communication technology”

Zhores I. Alferov and Herbert Kroemer
“for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics”

Jack S. Kilby
“for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000

Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa
“for the discovery and development of conductive polymers”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000

Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard and Eric R. Kandel
“for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2000

Gao Xingjian
“for an æuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2000

Kim Dae-jung
“for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2000

James J. Heckman
“for his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples”

Daniel L. McFadden
“for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice”

1999

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999

Gerardus ‘t Hooft and Martinus J.G. Veltman
“for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1999

Ahmed H. Zewail
“for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999

Günter Blobel
“for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1999

Günter Grass
“whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1999

Médecins Sans Frontières
“in recognition of the organization’s pioneering humanitarian work on several continents”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1999

Robert A. Mundell
“for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas”

1998

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998

Robert B. Laughlin, Horst L. Störmer and Daniel C. Tsui
“for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998

Walter Kohn
“for his development of the density-functional theory”

John A. Pople
“for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998

Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad
“for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1998

José Saramago
“who with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusory reality”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1998

John Hume and David Trimble
“for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland”

1997

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997

Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and William D. Phillips
“for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997

Paul D. Boyer and John E. Walker
“for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)”

Jens C. Skou
“for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1997

Stanley B. Prusiner
“for his discovery of Prions – a new biological principle of infection”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1997

Dario Fo
“who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1997

International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) and Jody Williams
“for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines”

1996

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996

David M. Lee, Douglas D. Osheroff and Robert C. Richardson
“for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996

Peter C. Doherty and Rolf M. Zinkernagel
“for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1996

Wislawa Szymborska
“for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1996

Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo and José Ramos-Horta
“for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1996

James A. Mirrlees and William Vickrey
“for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information”

1995

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1995

“for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics”

Martin L. Perl
“for the discovery of the tau lepton”

Frederick Reines
“for the detection of the neutrino”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995

Paul J. Crutzen, Mario J. Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland
“for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995

Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric F. Wieschaus
“for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1995

Seamus Heaney
“for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1995

Joseph Rotblat and Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
“for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1995

Robert E. Lucas Jr.
“for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy”

1994

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1994

“for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter”

Bertram N. Brockhouse
“for the development of neutron spectroscopy”

Clifford G. Shull
“for the development of the neutron diffraction technique”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1994

George A. Olah
“for his contribution to carbocation chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994

Alfred G. Gilman and Martin Rodbell
“for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1994

Kenzaburo Oe
“who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1994

Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres and Yitzhak Rabin
“for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1994

John C. Harsanyi, John F. Nash Jr. and Reinhard Selten
“for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games”

1993

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1993

Russell A. Hulse and Joseph H. Taylor Jr.
“for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993

“for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry”

Kary B. Mullis
“for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method”

Michael Smith
“for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1993

Toni Morrison
“who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1993

Nelson Mandela and Frederik Willem de Klerk
“for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1993

Robert W. Fogel and Douglass C. North
“for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change”

1992

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1992

Georges Charpak
“for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1992

Rudolph A. Marcus
“for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992

Edmond H. Fischer and Edwin G. Krebs
“for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1992

Derek Walcott
“for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1992

Rigoberta Menchú Tum
“for her struggle for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1992

Gary S. Becker
“for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour”

1991

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1991

Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
“for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1991

Richard R. Ernst
“for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991

Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann
“for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1991

Nadine Gordimer
“who through her magnificent epic writing has – in the words of Alfred Nobel – been of very great benefit to humanity”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1991

Aung San Suu Kyi
“for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1991

Ronald H. Coase
“for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy”

1990

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990

Jerome I. Friedman, Henry W. Kendall and Richard E. Taylor
“for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1990

Elias James Corey
“for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990

Joseph E. Murray and E. Donnall Thomas
“for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1990

Octavio Paz
“for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1990

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
“for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community”

1989

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989

Norman F. Ramsey
“for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks”

Hans G. Dehmelt and Wolfgang Paul
“for the development of the ion trap technique”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1989

Sidney Altman and Thomas R. Cech
“for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989

J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus
“for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1989

Camilo José Cela
“for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man’s vulnerability”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1989

The 14th Dalai Lama (Tenzin Gyatso)
“for advocating peaceful solutions based upon tolerance and mutual respect in order to preserve the historical and cultural heritage of his people”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1989

Trygve Haavelmo
“for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and his analyses of simultaneous economic structures”

1988

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988

Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz and Jack Steinberger
“for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1988

Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber and Hartmut Michel
“for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988

Sir James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion and George H. Hitchings
“for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1988

Naguib Mahfouz
“who, through works rich in nuance – now clear-sightedly realistic, now evocatively ambiguous – has formed an Arabian narrative art that applies to all mankind”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1988

United Nations Peacekeeping Forces
“for preventing armed clashes and creating conditions for negotiations”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1988

Maurice Allais
“for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources”

1987

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1987

J. Georg Bednorz and K. Alexander Müller
“for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987

Donald J. Cram, Jean-Marie Lehn and Charles J. Pedersen
“for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1987

Susumu Tonegawa
“for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1987

Joseph Brodsky
“for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1987

Oscar Arias Sánchez
“for his work for lasting peace in Central America”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1987

Robert M. Solow
“for his contributions to the theory of economic growth”

1986

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986

Ernst Ruska
“for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope”

Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer
“for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986

Dudley R. Herschbach, Yuan T. Lee and John C. Polanyi
“for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986

Stanley Cohen and Rita Levi-Montalcini
“for their discoveries of growth factors”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1986

Wole Soyinka
“who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashions the drama of existence”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1986

Elie Wiesel
“for being a messenger to mankind: his message is one of peace, atonement and dignity”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1986

James M. Buchanan Jr.
“for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making”

1985

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1985

Klaus von Klitzing
“for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1985

Herbert A. Hauptman and Jerome Karle
“for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985

Michael S. Brown and Joseph L. Goldstein
“for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1985

Claude Simon
“who in his novel combines the poet’s and the painter’s creativeness with a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1985

International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War
“for spreading authoritative information and by creating awareness of the catastrophic consequences of nuclear war”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1985

Franco Modigliani
“for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets”

1984

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1984

Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer
“for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1984

Robert Bruce Merrifield
“for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984

Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler and César Milstein
“for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1984

Jaroslav Seifert
“for his poetry which endowed with freshness, sensuality and rich inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1984

Desmond Mpilo Tutu
“for his role as a unifying leader figure in the non-violent campaign to resolve the problem of apartheid in South Africa”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1984

Richard Stone
“for having made fundamental contributions to the development of systems of national accounts and hence greatly improved the basis for empirical economic analysis”

1983

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1983

Subramanyan Chandrasekhar
“for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars”

William Alfred Fowler
“for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1983

Henry Taube
“for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1983

Barbara McClintock
“for her discovery of mobile genetic elements”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1983

William Golding
“for his novels which, with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1983

Lech Walesa
“for non-violent struggle for free trade unions and human rights in Poland”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1983

Gerard Debreu
“for having incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory and for his rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium”

1982

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1982

Kenneth G. Wilson
“for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1982

Aaron Klug
“for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982

Sune K. Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson and John R. Vane
“for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1982

Gabriel García Márquez
“for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent’s life and conflicts”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1982

Alva Myrdal and Alfonso García Robles
“for their work for disarmament and nuclear and weapon-free zones”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1982

George J. Stigler
“for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation”

1981

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981

Nicolaas Bloembergen and Arthur Leonard Schawlow
“for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy”

Kai M. Siegbahn
“for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1981

Kenichi Fukui and Roald Hoffmann
“for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981

Roger W. Sperry
“for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres”

David H. Hubel and Torsten N. Wiesel
“for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1981

Elias Canetti
“for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1981

James Tobin
“for his analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions, employment, production and prices”

1980

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1980

James Watson Cronin and Val Logsdon Fitch
“for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980

Paul Berg
“for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA”

Walter Gilbert and Frederick Sanger
“for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980

Baruj Benacerraf, Jean Dausset and George D. Snell
“for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1980

Czeslaw Milosz
“who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man’s exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1980

Adolfo Pérez Esquivel
“for being a source of inspiration to repressed people, especially in Latin America”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1980

Lawrence R. Klein
“for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies”

1979

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979

Sheldon Lee Glashow, Abdus Salam and Steven Weinberg
“for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1979

Herbert C. Brown and Georg Wittig
“for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1979

Allan M. Cormack and Godfrey N. Hounsfield
“for the development of computer assisted tomography”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1979

Odysseus Elytis
“for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man’s struggle for freedom and creativeness”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1979

Mother Teresa
“for her work for bringing help to suffering humanity”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1979

Theodore W. Schultz and Sir Arthur Lewis
“for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries”

1978

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978

Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa
“for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics”

Arno Allan Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson
“for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1978

Peter D. Mitchell
“for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978

Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith
“for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1978

Isaac Bashevis Singer
“for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1978

Mohamed Anwar al-Sadat and Menachem Begin
“for jointly having negotiated peace between Egypt and Israel in 1978”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1978

Herbert A. Simon
“for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations”

1977

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977

Philip Warren Anderson, Sir Nevill Francis Mott and John Hasbrouck Van Vleck
“for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1977

Ilya Prigogine
“for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977

Roger Guillemin and Andrew V. Schally
“for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain”

Rosalyn Yalow
“for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1977

Vicente Aleixandre
“for a creative poetic writing which illuminates man’s condition in the cosmos and in present-day society, at the same time representing the great renewal of the traditions of Spanish poetry between the wars”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1977

Amnesty International
“for worldwide respect for human rights”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1977

Bertil Ohlin and James E. Meade
“for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements”

1976

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1976

Burton Richter and Samuel Chao Chung Ting
“for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1976

William N. Lipscomb
“for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976

Baruch S. Blumberg and D. Carleton Gajdusek
“for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1976

Saul Bellow
“for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1976

Betty Williams and Mairead Corrigan
“for the courageous efforts in founding a movement to put an end to the violent conflict in Northern Ireland”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1976

Milton Friedman
“for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy”

1975

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975

Aage Niels Bohr, Ben Roy Mottelson and Leo James Rainwater
“for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1975

John Warcup Cornforth
“for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions”

Vladimir Prelog
“for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975

David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco and Howard Martin Temin
“for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1975

Eugenio Montale
“for his distinctive poetry which, with great artistic sensitivity, has interpreted human values under the sign of an outlook on life with no illusions”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1975

Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov
“for his struggle for human rights in the Soviet Union, for disarmament and cooperation between all nations”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1975

Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich and Tjalling C. Koopmans
“for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources”

1974

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1974

Sir Martin Ryle and Antony Hewish
“for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1974

Paul J. Flory
“for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974

Albert Claude, Christian de Duve and George E. Palade
“for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1974

Eyvind Johnson
“for a narrative art, far-seeing in lands and ages, in the service of freedom”

Harry Martinson
“for writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1974

Seán MacBride
“for his efforts to secure and develop human rights throughout the world”

Eisaku Sato
“for his contribution to stabilize conditions in the Pacific rim area and for signing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1974

Gunnar Myrdal and Friedrich August von Hayek
“for their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena”

1973

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973

Leo Esaki and Ivar Giaever
“for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively”

Brian David Josephson
“for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1973

Ernst Otto Fischer and Geoffrey Wilkinson
“for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973

Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz and Nikolaas Tinbergen
“for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1973

Patrick White
“for an epic and psychological narrative art which has introduced a new continent into literature”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1973

Henry A. Kissinger and Le Duc Tho
“for jointly having negotiated a cease fire in Vietnam in 1973”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1973

Wassily Leontief
“for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems”

1972

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972

John Bardeen, Leon Neil Cooper and John Robert Schrieffer
“for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972

Christian B. Anfinsen
“for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation”

Stanford Moore and William H. Stein
“for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972

Gerald M. Edelman and Rodney R. Porter
“for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1972

Heinrich Böll
“for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1972

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money for 1972 was allocated to the Main Fund.

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1972

John R. Hicks and Kenneth J. Arrow
“for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory”

1971

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1971

Dennis Gabor
“for his invention and development of the holographic method”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1971

Gerhard Herzberg
“for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1971

Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.
“for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1971

Pablo Neruda
“for a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a continent’s destiny and dreams”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1971

Willy Brandt
“for paving the way for a meaningful dialogue between East and West”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1971

Simon Kuznets
“for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development”

1970

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1970

Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén
“for fundamental work and discoveries in magnetohydro-dynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics”

Louis Eugène Félix Néel
“for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1970

Luis F. Leloir
“for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970

Sir Bernard Katz, Ulf von Euler and Julius Axelrod
“for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1970

Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn
“for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1970

Norman E. Borlaug
“for having given a well-founded hope – the green revolution”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1970

Paul A. Samuelson
“for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science”

1969

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1969

Murray Gell-Mann
“for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1969

Derek H. R. Barton and Odd Hassel
“for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969

Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey and Salvador E. Luria
“for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1969

Samuel Beckett
“for his writing, which – in new forms for the novel and drama – in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1969

International Labour Organization (ILO)
“for creating international legislation insuring certain norms for working conditions in every country”

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1969

Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen
“for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes”

1968

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1968

Luis Walter Alvarez
“for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1968

Lars Onsager
“for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968

Robert W. Holley, Har Gobind Khorana and Marshall W. Nirenberg
“for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1968

Yasunari Kawabata
“for his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the essence of the Japanese mind”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1968

René Cassin
“for his struggle to ensure the rights of man as stipulated in the UN Declaration”

1967

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1967

Hans Albrecht Bethe
“for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967

Manfred Eigen, Ronald George Wreyford Norrish and George Porter
“for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967

Ragnar Granit, Haldan Keffer Hartline and George Wald
“for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1967

Miguel Angel Asturias
“for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1967

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1966

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1966

Alfred Kastler
“for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1966

Robert S. Mulliken
“for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966

Peyton Rous
“for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses”

Charles Brenton Huggins
“for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1966

Shmuel Yosef Agnon
“for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people”

Nelly Sachs
“for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel’s destiny with touching strength”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1966

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1965

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965

Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger and Richard P. Feynman
“for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1965

Robert Burns Woodward
“for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965

François Jacob, André Lwoff and Jacques Monod
“for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1965

Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov
“for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic of the Don, he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian people”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1965

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
“for its effort to enhance solidarity between nations and reduce the difference between rich and poor states”

1964

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964

Charles Hard Townes, Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov and Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov
“for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1964

Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
“for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964

Konrad Bloch and Feodor Lynen
“for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1964

Jean-Paul Sartre
“for his work which, rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom and the quest for truth, has exerted a far-reaching influence on our age”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1964

Martin Luther King Jr.
“for his non-violent struggle for civil rights for the Afro-American population”

1963

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963

Eugene Paul Wigner
“for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles”

Maria Goeppert Mayer and J. Hans D. Jensen
“for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1963

Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta
“for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963

Sir John Carew Eccles, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and Andrew Fielding Huxley
“for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1963

Giorgos Seferis
“for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture”

1962

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1962

Lev Davidovich Landau
“for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1962

Max Ferdinand Perutz and John Cowdery Kendrew
“for their studies of the structures of globular proteins”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962

Francis Harry Compton Crick, James Dewey Watson and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins
“for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1962

John Steinbeck
“for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1962

Linus Carl Pauling
“for his fight against the nuclear arms race between East and West”

1961

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1961

Robert Hofstadter
“for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons”

Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer
“for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1961

Melvin Calvin
“for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1961

Georg von Békésy
“for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1961

Ivo Andric
“for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1961

Dag Hammarskjöld
“for developing the UN into an effective and constructive international organization, capable of giving life to the principles and aims expressed in the UN Charter”

1960

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1960

Donald Arthur Glaser
“for the invention of the bubble chamber”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1960

Willard Frank Libby
“for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1960

Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet and Peter Brian Medawar
“for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1960

Saint-John Perse
“for the soaring flight and the evocative imagery of his poetry which in a visionary fashion reflects the conditions of our time”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1960

Albert John Lutuli
“for his non-violent struggle against apartheid”

1959

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1959

Emilio Gino Segrè and Owen Chamberlain
“for their discovery of the antiproton”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1959

Jaroslav Heyrovsky
“for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959

Severo Ochoa and Arthur Kornberg
“for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1959

Salvatore Quasimodo
“for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1959

Philip J. Noel-Baker
“for his longstanding contribution to the cause of disarmament and peace”

1958

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958

Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov, Il´ja Mikhailovich Frank and Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm
“for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1958

Frederick Sanger
“for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958

George Wells Beadle and Edward Lawrie Tatum
“for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events”

Joshua Lederberg
“for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1958

Boris Leonidovich Pasternak
“for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1958

Georges Pire
“for his efforts to help refugees to leave their camps and return to a life of freedom and dignity”

1957

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1957

Chen Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao (T.D.) Lee
“for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1957

Lord (Alexander R.) Todd
“for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1957

Daniel Bovet
“for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1957

Albert Camus
“for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1957

Lester Bowles Pearson
“for his crucial contribution to the deployment of a United Nations Emergency Force in the wake of the Suez Crisis”

1956

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956

William Bradford Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain
“for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956

Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood and Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov
“for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956

André Frédéric Cournand, Werner Forssmann and Dickinson W. Richards
“for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1956

Juan Ramón Jiménez
“for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1956

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1955

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1955

Willis Eugene Lamb
“for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum”

Polykarp Kusch
“for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1955

Vincent du Vigneaud
“for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1955

Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell
“for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1955

Halldór Kiljan Laxness
“for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1955

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1954

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1954

Max Born
“for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction”

Walther Bothe
“for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1954

Linus Carl Pauling
“for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954

John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller and Frederick Chapman Robbins
“for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1954

Ernest Miller Hemingway
“for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1954

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
“for its efforts to heal the wounds of war by providing help and protection to refugees all over the world”

1953

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1953

Frits Zernike
“for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1953

Hermann Staudinger
“for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953

Hans Adolf Krebs
“for his discovery of the citric acid cycle”

Fritz Albert Lipmann
“for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1953

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill
“for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1953

George Catlett Marshall
“for proposing and supervising the plan for the economic recovery of Europe”

1952

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1952

Felix Bloch and Edward Mills Purcell
“for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1952

Archer John Porter Martin and Richard Laurence Millington Synge
“for their invention of partition chromatography”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1952

Selman Abraham Waksman
“for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1952

François Mauriac
“for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1952

Albert Schweitzer
“for his altruism, reverence for life, and tireless humanitarian work which has helped making the idea of brotherhood between men and nations a living one”

1951

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1951

Sir John Douglas Cockcroft and Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton
“for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951

Edwin Mattison McMillan and Glenn Theodore Seaborg
“for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1951

Max Theiler
“for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1951

Pär Fabian Lagerkvist
“for the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions confronting mankind”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1951

Léon Jouhaux
“for having devoted his life to the fight against war through the promotion of social justice and brotherhood among men and nations”

1950

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1950

Cecil Frank Powell
“for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1950

Otto Paul Hermann Diels and Kurt Alder
“for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950

Edward Calvin Kendall, Tadeus Reichstein and Philip Showalter Hench
“for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1950

Earl (Bertrand Arthur William) Russell
“in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1950

Ralph Bunche
“for his work as mediator in Palestine in 1948-1949”

1949

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1949

Hideki Yukawa
“for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1949

William Francis Giauque
“for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949

Walter Rudolf Hess
“for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs”

Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz
“for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1949

William Faulkner
“for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1949

Lord (John) Boyd Orr of Brechin
“for his lifelong effort to conquer hunger and want, thereby helping to remove a major cause of military conflict and war”

1948

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1948

Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett
“for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1948

Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius
“for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1948

Paul Hermann Müller
“for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1948

Thomas Stearns Eliot
“for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1948

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1947

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1947

Sir Edward Victor Appleton
“for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1947

Sir Robert Robinson
“for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947

Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz
“for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen”

Bernardo Alberto Houssay
“for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1947

André Paul Guillaume Gide
“for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1947

Friends Service Council (The Quakers) and American Friends Service Committee (The Quakers)
“for their pioneering work in the international peace movement and compassionate effort to relieve human suffering, thereby promoting the fraternity between nation”

1946

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1946

Percy Williams Bridgman
“for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946

James Batcheller Sumner
“for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized”

John Howard Northrop and Wendell Meredith Stanley
“for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1946

Hermann Joseph Muller
“for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1946

Hermann Hesse
“for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1946

Emily Greene Balch
“for her lifelong work for the cause of peace”

John Raleigh Mott
“for his contribution to the creation of a peace-promoting religious brotherhood across national boundaries”

1945

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1945

Wolfgang Pauli
“for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1945

Artturi Ilmari Virtanen
“for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945

Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chain and Sir Howard Walter Florey
“for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1945

Gabriela Mistral
“for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1945

Cordell Hull
“for his indefatigable work for international understanding and his pivotal role in establishing the United Nations”

1944

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1944

Isidor Isaac Rabi
“for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1944

Otto Hahn
“for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944

Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser
“for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1944

Johannes Vilhelm Jensen
“for the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with which is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly creative style”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1944

Comité international de la Croix Rouge (International Committee of the Red Cross)
“for the great work it has performed during the war on behalf of humanity”

1943

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1943

Otto Stern
“for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1943

George de Hevesy
“for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1943

Henrik Carl Peter Dam
“for his discovery of vitamin K”

Edward Adelbert Doisy
“for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1943

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Peace Prize 1943

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1942

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Peace Prize 1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1941

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1941

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1941

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1941

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1941

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Peace Prize 1941

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1940

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1940

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1940

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1940

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1940

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Peace Prize 1940

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1939

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1939

Ernest Orlando Lawrence
“for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1939

Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt
“for his work on sex hormones”

Leopold Ruzicka
“for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1939

Gerhard Domagk
“for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1939

Frans Eemil Sillanpää
“for his deep understanding of his country’s peasantry and the exquisite art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship with Nature”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1939

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1938

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1938

Enrico Fermi
“for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1938

Richard Kuhn
“for his work on carotenoids and vitamins”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1938

Corneille Jean François Heymans
“for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1938

Pearl Buck
“for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1938

Office international Nansen pour les Réfugiés (Nansen International Office for Refugees)
“for having carried on the work of Fridtjof Nansen to the benefit of refugees across Europe”

1937

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1937

Clinton Joseph Davisson and George Paget Thomson
“for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1937

Walter Norman Haworth
“for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C”

Paul Karrer
“for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1937

Albert von Szent-Györgyi Nagyrápolt
“for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1937

Roger Martin du Gard
“for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novel-cycle Les Thibault

The Nobel Peace Prize 1937

Cecil of Chelwood, Viscount (Lord Edgar Algernon Robert Gascoyne Cecil)
“for his tireless effort in support of the League of Nations, disarmament and peace”

1936

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1936

Victor Franz Hess
“for his discovery of cosmic radiation”

Carl David Anderson
“for his discovery of the positron”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1936

Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye
“for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936

Sir Henry Hallett Dale and Otto Loewi
“for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1936

Eugene Gladstone O’Neill
“for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1936

Carlos Saavedra Lamas
“for his role as father of the Argentine Antiwar Pact of 1933, which he also used as a means to mediate peace between Paraguay and Bolivia in 1935”

1935

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1935

James Chadwick
“for the discovery of the neutron”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1935

Frédéric Joliot and Irène Joliot-Curie
“in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1935

Hans Spemann
“for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1935

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Peace Prize 1935

Carl von Ossietzky
“for his burning love for freedom of thought and expression and his valuable contribution to the cause of peace”

1934

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1934

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1934

Harold Clayton Urey
“for his discovery of heavy hydrogen”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934

George Hoyt Whipple, George Richards Minot and William Parry Murphy
“for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1934

Luigi Pirandello
“for his bold and ingenious revival of dramatic and scenic art”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1934

Arthur Henderson
“for his untiring struggle and his courageous efforts as Chairman of the League of Nations Disarmament Conference 1931-34”

1933

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933

Erwin Schrödinger and Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac
“for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1933

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933

Thomas Hunt Morgan
“for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1933

Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin
“for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1933

Sir Norman Angell (Ralph Lane)
“for having exposed by his pen the illusion of war and presented a convincing plea for international cooperation and peace”

1932

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1932

Werner Karl Heisenberg
“for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1932

Irving Langmuir
“for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1932

Sir Charles Scott Sherrington and Edgar Douglas Adrian
“for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1932

John Galsworthy
“for his distinguished art of narration which takes its highest form in The Forsyte Saga

The Nobel Peace Prize 1932

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1931

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1931

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931

Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius
“in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1931

Otto Heinrich Warburg
“for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1931

Erik Axel Karlfeldt
“The poetry of Erik Axel Karlfeldt”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1931

Jane Addams and Nicholas Murray Butler
“for their assiduous effort to revive the ideal of peace and to rekindle the spirit of peace in their own nation and in the whole of mankind”

1930

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930

Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman
“for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1930

Hans Fischer
“for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930

Karl Landsteiner
“for his discovery of human blood groups”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1930

Sinclair Lewis
“for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1930

Lars Olof Jonathan (Nathan) Söderblom
“for promoting Christian unity and helping create ‘that new attitude of mind which is necessary if peace between nations is to become reality'”

1929

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1929

Prince Louis-Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie
“for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1929

Arthur Harden and Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin
“for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929

Christiaan Eijkman
“for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin”

Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins
“for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1929

Thomas Mann
“principally for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1929

Frank Billings Kellogg
“for his crucial role in bringing about the Briand-Kellogg Pact”

1928

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1928

Owen Willans Richardson
“for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1928

Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus
“for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1928

Sigrid Undset
“principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1928

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1927

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1927

Arthur Holly Compton
“for his discovery of the effect named after him”

Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
“for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1927

Heinrich Otto Wieland
“for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1927

Julius Wagner-Jauregg
“for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1927

Henri Bergson
“in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1927

Ferdinand Buisson and Ludwig Quidde
“for their contribution to the emergence in France and Germany of a public opinion which favours peaceful international cooperation”

1926

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1926

Jean Baptiste Perrin
“for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1926

The (Theodor) Svedberg
“for his work on disperse systems”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1926

Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger
“for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1926

Grazia Deledda
“for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1926

Aristide Briand and Gustav Stresemann
“for their crucial role in bringing about the Locarno Treaty”

1925

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925

James Franck and Gustav Ludwig Hertz
“for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1925

Richard Adolf Zsigmondy
“for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1925

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1925

George Bernard Shaw
“for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1925

Sir Austen Chamberlain
“for his crucial role in bringing about the Locarno Treaty”

Charles Gates Dawes
“for his crucial role in bringing about the Dawes Plan”

1924

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1924

Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn
“for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1924

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1924

Willem Einthoven
“for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1924

Wladyslaw Stanislaw Reymont
“for his great national epic, The Peasants

The Nobel Peace Prize 1924

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1923

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1923

Robert Andrews Millikan
“for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1923

Fritz Pregl
“for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1923

William Butler Yeats
“for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1923

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1922

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1922

Niels Henrik David Bohr
“for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1922

Francis William Aston
“for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922

Archibald Vivian Hill
“for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle”

Otto Fritz Meyerhof
“for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1922

Jacinto Benavente
“for the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1922

Fridtjof Nansen
“for his leading role in the repatriation of prisoners of war, in international relief work and as the League of Nations’ High Commissioner for refugees”

1921

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921

Albert Einstein
“for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1921

Frederick Soddy
“for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1921

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1921

Anatole France
“in recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, grace, and a true Gallic temperament”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1921

Karl Hjalmar Branting and Christian Lous Lange
“for their lifelong contributions to the cause of peace and organized internationalism”

1920

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1920

Charles Edouard Guillaume
“in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1920

Walther Hermann Nernst
“in recognition of his work in thermochemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1920

Schack August Steenberg Krogh
“for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1920

Knut Pedersen Hamsun
“for his monumental work, Growth of the Soil

The Nobel Peace Prize 1920

Léon Victor Auguste Bourgeois
“for his longstanding contribution to the cause of peace and justice and his prominent role in the establishment of the League of Nations”

1919

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1919

Johannes Stark
“for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1919

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1919

Jules Bordet
“for his discoveries relating to immunity”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1919

Carl Friedrich Georg Spitteler
“in special appreciation of his epic, Olympian Spring

The Nobel Peace Prize 1919

Thomas Woodrow Wilson
“for his role as founder of the League of Nations”

1918

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1918

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck
“in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1918

Fritz Haber
“for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1918

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1918

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Peace Prize 1918

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1917

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1917

Charles Glover Barkla
“for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1917

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1917

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1917

Karl Adolph Gjellerup
“for his varied and rich poetry, which is inspired by lofty ideals”

Henrik Pontoppidan
“for his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1917

Comité international de la Croix Rouge (International Committee of the Red Cross)
“for the efforts to take care of wounded soldiers and prisoners of war and their families”

1916

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1916

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1916

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1916

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1916

Carl Gustaf Verner von Heidenstam
“in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1916

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1915

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915

Sir William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg
“for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1915

Richard Martin Willstätter
“for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1915

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1915

Romain Rolland
“as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1915

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1914

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1914

Max von Laue
“for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1914

Theodore William Richards
“in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1914

Robert Bárány
“for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1914

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Peace Prize 1914

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1913

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1913

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
“for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1913

Alfred Werner
“in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1913

Charles Robert Richet
“in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1913

Rabindranath Tagore
“because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1913

Henri La Fontaine
“for his unparalleled contribution to the organization of peaceful internationalism”

1912

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1912

Nils Gustaf Dalén
“for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1912

Victor Grignard
“for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry”

Paul Sabatier
“for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent years”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1912

Alexis Carrel
“in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1912

Gerhart Johann Robert Hauptmann
“primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1912

Elihu Root
“for bringing about better understanding between the countries of North and South America and initiating important arbitration agreements between the United States and other countries”

1911

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1911

Wilhelm Wien
“for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1911

Marie Curie, née Sklodowska
“in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1911

Allvar Gullstrand
“for his work on the dioptrics of the eye”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1911

Count Maurice (Mooris) Polidore Marie Bernhard Maeterlinck
“in appreciation of his many-sided literary activities, and especially of his dramatic works, which are distinguished by a wealth of imagination and by a poetic fancy, which reveals, sometimes in the guise of a fairy tale, a deep inspiration, while in a mysterious way they appeal to the readers’ own feelings and stimulate their imaginations”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1911

Tobias Michael Carel Asser
“for his role as co-founder of the Institut de droit international, initiator of the Conferences on International Private Law (Conférences de Droit international privé) at the Hague, and pioneer in the field of international legal relations”

Alfred Hermann Fried
“for his effort to expose and fight what he considers to be the main cause of war, namely, the anarchy in international relations”

1910

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1910

Johannes Diderik van der Waals
“for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1910

Otto Wallach
“in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1910

Albrecht Kossel
“in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1910

Paul Johann Ludwig Heyse
“as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1910

Bureau international permanent de la Paix (Permanent International Peace Bureau)
“for acting as a link between the peace societies of the various countries, and helping them to organize the world rallies of the international peace movement”

1909

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909

Guglielmo Marconi and Karl Ferdinand Braun
“in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1909

Wilhelm Ostwald
“in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1909

Emil Theodor Kocher
“for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1909

Selma Ottilia Lovisa Lagerlöf
“in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1909

Auguste Marie François Beernaert and Paul Henri Benjamin Balluet d’Estournelles de Constant, Baron de Constant de Rebecque
“for their prominent position in the international movement for peace and arbitration”

1908

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1908

Gabriel Lippmann
“for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908

Ernest Rutherford
“for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908

Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov and Paul Ehrlich
“in recognition of their work on immunity”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1908

Rudolf Christoph Eucken
“in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1908

Klas Pontus Arnoldson and Fredrik Bajer
“for their long time work for the cause of peace as politicians, peace society leaders, orators and authors”

1907

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1907

Albert Abraham Michelson
“for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1907

Eduard Buchner
“for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1907

Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran
“in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1907

Rudyard Kipling
“in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1907

Ernesto Teodoro Moneta
“for his work in the press and in peace meetings, both public and private, for an understanding between France and Italy”

Louis Renault
“for his decisive influence upon the conduct and outcome of the Hague and Geneva Conferences”

1906

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1906

Joseph John Thomson
“in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1906

Henri Moissan
“in recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace called after him”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906

Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal
“in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1906

Giosuè Carducci
“not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1906

Theodore Roosevelt
“for his role in bringing to an end the bloody war recently waged between two of the world’s great powers, Japan and Russia”

1905

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1905

Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer
“in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905

Robert Koch
“for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1905

Henryk Sienkiewicz
“because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1905

Bertha von Suttner
“for her audacity to oppose the horrors of war”

1904

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1904

Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt)
“for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1904

Sir William Ramsay
“in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1904

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov
“in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1904

Frédéric Mistral
“in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist”

José Echegaray y Eizaguirre
“in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1904

Institut de droit international (Institute of International Law)
“for its striving in public law to develop peaceful ties between nations and to make the laws of war more humane”

1903

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903

Antoine Henri Becquerel
“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity”

Pierre Curie and Marie Curie, née Sklodowska
“in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1903

Svante August Arrhenius
“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903

Niels Ryberg Finsen
“in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1903

Bjørnstjerne Martinus Bjørnson
“as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1903

William Randal Cremer
“for his longstanding and devoted effort in favour of the ideas of peace and arbitration”

1902

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1902

Hendrik Antoon Lorentz and Pieter Zeeman
“in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1902

Hermann Emil Fischer
“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902

Ronald Ross
“for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1902

Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen
“the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A history of Rome

The Nobel Peace Prize 1902

Élie Ducommun
“for his untiring and skilful directorship of the Bern Peace Bureau”

Charles Albert Gobat
“for his eminently practical administration of the Inter-Parliamentary Union”

1901

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1901

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1901

Jacobus Henricus van ‘t Hoff
“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901

Emil Adolf von Behring
“for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1901

Sully Prudhomme
“in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart and intellect”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1901

Jean Henry Dunant
“for his humanitarian efforts to help wounded soldiers and create international understanding”

Frédéric Passy
“for his lifelong work for international peace conferences, diplomacy and arbitration”

All Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded 112 times to 224 Nobel Prize laureates between 1901 and 2021. Click on the links to get more information.


Find all prizes in | physics | chemistry | physiology or medicine | literature | peace | economic sciences | all categories

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2022

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2022 has not been awarded yet. It will be announced on Monday 3 October, 11:30 CEST at the earliest.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2021

David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian “for their discoveries of receptors for temperature and touch”.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2020

Harvey J. Alter, Michael Houghton and Charles M. Rice “for the discovery of Hepatitis C virus”.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2019

William G. Kaelin Jr, Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza “for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2018

James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo “for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2017

Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young “for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2016

Yoshinori Ohsumi “for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2015

William C. Campbell and Satoshi Ōmura “for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites”

Tu Youyou “for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against Malaria”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014

John O’Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser “for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013

James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof “for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012

Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka “for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011

Bruce A. Beutler and Jules A. Hoffmann “for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity”

Ralph M. Steinman “for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2010

Robert G. Edwards “for the development of in vitro fertilization”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009

Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostak “for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008

Harald zur Hausen“for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer”

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier “for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007

Mario R. Capecchi, Sir Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies “for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006

Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello “for their discovery of RNA interference – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005

Barry J. Marshall and J. Robin Warren “for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004

Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck “for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003

Paul C. Lauterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield “for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002

Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz and John E. Sulston “for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001

Leland H. Hartwell, Tim Hunt and Sir Paul M. Nurse “for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000

Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard and Eric R. Kandel “for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999

Günter Blobel “for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998

Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad “for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1997

Stanley B. Prusiner “for his discovery of Prions – a new biological principle of infection”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996

Peter C. Doherty and Rolf M. Zinkernagel “for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995

Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric F. Wieschaus “for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994

Alfred G. Gilman and Martin Rodbell “for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992

Edmond H. Fischer and Edwin G. Krebs “for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991

Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann “for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990

Joseph E. Murray and E. Donnall Thomas “for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989

J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus “for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988

Sir James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion and George H. Hitchings “for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1987

Susumu Tonegawa “for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986

Stanley Cohen and Rita Levi-Montalcini “for their discoveries of growth factors”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985

Michael S. Brown and Joseph L. Goldstein “for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984

Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler and César Milstein “for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1983

Barbara McClintock “for her discovery of mobile genetic elements”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982

Sune K. Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson and John R. Vane “for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981

Roger W. Sperry “for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres”

David H. Hubel and Torsten N. Wiesel “for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980

Baruj Benacerraf, Jean Dausset and George D. Snell “for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1979

Allan M. Cormack and Godfrey N. Hounsfield“for the development of computer assisted tomography”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978

Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith “for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977

Roger Guillemin and Andrew V. Schally “for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain”

Rosalyn Yalow“for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976

Baruch S. Blumberg and D. Carleton Gajdusek“for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975

David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco and Howard Martin Temin“for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974

Albert Claude, Christian de Duve and George E. Palade “for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973

Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz and Nikolaas Tinbergen “for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972

Gerald M. Edelman and Rodney R. Porter “for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1971

Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. “for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970

Sir Bernard Katz, Ulf von Euler and Julius Axelrod “for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969

Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey and Salvador E. Luria “for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968

Robert W. Holley, Har Gobind Khorana and Marshall W. Nirenberg “for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967

Ragnar Granit, Haldan Keffer Hartline and George Wald “for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966

Peyton Rous “for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses”

Charles Brenton Huggins “for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965

François Jacob, André Lwoff and Jacques Monod “for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964

Konrad Bloch and Feodor Lynen “for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963

Sir John Carew Eccles, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and Andrew Fielding Huxley “for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962

Francis Harry Compton Crick, James Dewey Watson and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins “for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1961

Georg von Békésy “for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1960

Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet and Peter Brian Medawar “for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959

Severo Ochoa and Arthur Kornberg “for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958

George Wells Beadle and Edward Lawrie Tatum “for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events”

Joshua Lederberg “for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1957

Daniel Bovet “for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956

André Frédéric Cournand, Werner Forssmann and Dickinson W. Richards “for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1955

Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell “for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954

John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller and Frederick Chapman Robbins “for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953

Hans Adolf Krebs “for his discovery of the citric acid cycle”

Fritz Albert Lipmann “for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1952

Selman Abraham Waksman “for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1951

Max Theiler “for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950

Edward Calvin Kendall, Tadeus Reichstein and Philip Showalter Hench “for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949

Walter Rudolf Hess “for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs”

Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz “for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1948

Paul Hermann Müller “for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947

Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz “for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen”

Bernardo Alberto Houssay “for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1946

Hermann Joseph Muller “for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945

Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chain and Sir Howard Walter Florey “for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944

Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser “for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1943

Henrik Carl Peter Dam “for his discovery of vitamin K”

Edward Adelbert Doisy “for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1941

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1940

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1939

Gerhard Domagk “for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1938

Corneille Jean François Heymans “for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1937

Albert von Szent-Györgyi Nagyrápolt “for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936

Sir Henry Hallett Dale and Otto Loewi “for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1935

Hans Spemann “for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934

George Hoyt Whipple, George Richards Minot and William Parry Murphy “for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933

Thomas Hunt Morgan “for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1932

Sir Charles Scott Sherrington and Edgar Douglas Adrian “for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1931

Otto Heinrich Warburg “for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930

Karl Landsteiner “for his discovery of human blood groups”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929

Christiaan Eijkman “for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin”

Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins “for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1928

Charles Jules Henri Nicolle “for his work on typhus”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1927

Julius Wagner-Jauregg “for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1926

Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger “for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1925

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1924

Willem Einthoven “for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922

Archibald Vivian Hill “for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle”

Otto Fritz Meyerhof “for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1921

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1920

Schack August Steenberg Krogh “for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1919

Jules Bordet “for his discoveries relating to immunity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1918

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1917

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1916

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1915

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1914

Robert Bárány “for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1913

Charles Robert Richet “in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1912

Alexis Carrel “in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1911

Allvar Gullstrand “for his work on the dioptrics of the eye”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1910

Albrecht Kossel “in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1909

Emil Theodor Kocher “for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908

Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov and Paul Ehrlich “in recognition of their work on immunity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1907

Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran “in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906

Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal “in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905

Robert Koch “for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1904

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov “in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903

Niels Ryberg Finsen “in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902

Ronald Ross “for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901

Emil Adolf von Behring “for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths”

Nobel Laureates by age

Lawrence Bragg, Leonid Hurwicz

This list shows the Laureates by age at the year of the award.

Age 17 (1)

The Nobel Peace Prize 2014
Malala Yousafzai
“for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education”

Age 25 (1)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915
Lawrence Bragg
“for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays”

Age 31 (4)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1932
Werner Heisenberg
“for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933
Paul A.M. Dirac
“for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1936
Carl D. Anderson
“for his discovery of the positron”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1957
Tsung-Dao Lee
“for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles”

Age 32 (4)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1961
Rudolf Mössbauer
“for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1923
Frederick G. Banting
“for the discovery of insulin”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1976
Mairead Corrigan

The Nobel Peace Prize 2011
Tawakkol Karman
“for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women’s rights to full participation in peace-building work”

Age 33 (4)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973
Brian D. Josephson
“for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958
Joshua Lederberg
“for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1976
Betty Williams

The Nobel Peace Prize 1992
Rigoberta Menchú Tum
“in recognition of her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples”

Age 34 (2)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1960
Donald A. Glaser
“for the invention of the bubble chamber”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962
James Watson
“for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material”

Age 35 (6)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909
Guglielmo Marconi
“in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1914
Max von Laue
“for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1927
Arthur H. Compton
“for his discovery of the effect named after him”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1957
Chen Ning Yang
“for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1935
Frédéric Joliot
“in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1964
Martin Luther King Jr.

Age 36 (4)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903
Marie Curie
“in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010
Konstantin Novoselov
“for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1939
Adolf Butenandt
“for his work on sex hormones”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922
Archibald V. Hill
“for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle”

Age 37 (7)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1902
Pieter Zeeman
“in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1922
Niels Bohr
“for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1929
Louis de Broglie
“for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1938
Enrico Fermi
“for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1987
J. Georg Bednorz
“for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908
Ernest Rutherford
“for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975
David Baltimore
“for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell”

Age 38 (10)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1924
Manne Siegbahn
“for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925
Gustav Hertz
“for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1939
Ernest Lawrence
“for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1935
Irène Joliot-Curie
“in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1938
Richard Kuhn
“for his work on carotenoids and vitamins”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1952
Richard L.M. Synge
“for their invention of partition chromatography”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1914

Robert Bárány

“for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922
Otto Meyerhof
“for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954
Frederick C. Robbins
“for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984
Georges J.F. Köhler
“for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies”

Age 39 (7)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1959
Owen Chamberlain
“for their discovery of the antiproton”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986
Gerd Binnig
“for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951
Glenn T. Seaborg
“for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1912
Alexis Carrel
“in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945
Ernst B. Chain
“for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954
Thomas H. Weller
“for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2011
Leymah Gbowee
“for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women’s rights to full participation in peace-building work”

Age 40 (9)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1917
Charles Glover Barkla
“for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1952
E. M. Purcell
“for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1969
Murray Gell-Mann
“for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1976
Samuel C.C. Ting
“for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001
Eric Cornell
“for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1958
Frederick Sanger
“for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967
Manfred Eigen
“for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1988
Hartmut Michel
“for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1983
Lech Walesa

Age 41 (6)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972
Robert Schrieffer
“for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1912
Victor Grignard
“for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1934
Harold C. Urey
“for his discovery of heavy hydrogen”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959
Arthur Kornberg
“for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968
Marshall W. Nirenberg
“for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975
Howard M. Temin
“for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell”

Age 42 (15)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921
Albert Einstein
“for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman
“for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1949
Hideki Yukawa
“for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1955
Willis E. Lamb
“for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964
Nicolay G. Basov
“for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972
Leon N. Cooper
“for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978
Robert Woodrow Wilson
“for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1985
Klaus von Klitzing
“for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011
Adam G. Riess
“for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1926
The Svedberg
“for his work on disperse systems”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946
Wendell M. Stanley
“for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1952
Archer J.P. Martin
“for their invention of partition chromatography”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1989
Thomas R. Cech
“for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934
William P. Murphy
“for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1907
Rudyard Kipling
“in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author”

Age 43 (9)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1905
Philipp Lenard
“for his work on cathode rays”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1912
Gustaf Dalén
“for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925
James Franck
“for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1993
Russell A. Hulse
“for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1915
Richard Willstätter
“for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002
Koichi Tanaka
“for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903
Niels Ryberg Finsen
“in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1932
Edgar Adrian
“for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972
Gerald M. Edelman
“for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies”

Age 44 (15)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903
Pierre Curie
“in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1935
James Chadwick
“for the discovery of the neutron”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1955
Polykarp Kusch
“for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973
Ivar Giaever
“for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001
Wolfgang Ketterle
“for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011
Brian P. Schmidt
“for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1903
Svante Arrhenius
“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1911
Marie Curie
“in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1921
Frederick Soddy
“for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951
Edwin M. McMillan
“for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1981
Roald Hoffmann
“for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1937
Albert Szent-Györgyi
“for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1939
Gerhard Domagk
“for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985
Michael S. Brown
“for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1957
Albert Camus
“for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times”

Age 45 (13)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1919
Johannes Stark
“for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1937
George Paget Thomson
“for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1945
Wolfgang Pauli
“for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1976
Burton Richter
“for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978
Arno Penzias
“for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1922
Francis W. Aston
“for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1962
John C. Kendrew
“for their studies of the structures of globular proteins”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1988
Johann Deisenhofer
“for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902
Ronald Ross
“for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1960
Peter Medawar
“for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965
François Jacob
“for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985
Joseph L. Goldstein
“for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1930
Sinclair Lewis
“for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters”

Age 46 (22)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933
Erwin Schrödinger
“for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1944
Isidor Isaac Rabi
“for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956
William B. Shockley
“for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1961
Robert Hofstadter
“for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979
Steven Weinberg
“for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1982
Kenneth G. Wilson
“for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1914
Theodore W. Richards
“in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1948
Arne Tiselius
“for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1920
August Krogh
“for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1938
Corneille Heymans
“for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962
Francis Crick
“for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962
Maurice Wilkins
“for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963
Andrew Huxley
“for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968
Robert W. Holley
“for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968
H. Gobind Khorana
“for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006
Craig C. Mello
“for their discovery of RNA interference – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1928
Sigrid Undset
“principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1938
Pearl Buck
“for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1935
Carl von Ossietzky

The Nobel Peace Prize 1950
Ralph Bunche

The Nobel Peace Prize 1987
Oscar Arias Sánchez
“for his work for peace in Central America, efforts which led to the accord signed in Guatemala on August 7 this year”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1991
Aung San Suu Kyi
“for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights”

Age 47 (21)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1911
Wilhelm Wien
“for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1950
Cecil Powell
“for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1952
Felix Bloch
“for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965
Julian Schwinger
“for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965
Richard P. Feynman
“for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979
Sheldon Glashow
“for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1907
Eduard Buchner
“for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1913
Alfred Werner
“in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931
Friedrich Bergius
“in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967
George Porter
“for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003
Roderick MacKinnon
“for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901
Emil von Behring
“for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1923
John Macleod
“for the discovery of insulin”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945
Sir Howard Florey
“for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978
Hamilton O. Smith
“for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991
Erwin Neher
“for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006
Andrew Z. Fire
“for their discovery of RNA interference – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1987
Joseph Brodsky
“for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1911
Alfred Fried

The Nobel Peace Prize 1996
José Ramos-Horta
“for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1997
Jody Williams
“for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines”

Age 48 (23)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1951
Ernest T.S. Walton
“for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956
John Bardeen
“for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964
Aleksandr M. Prokhorov
“for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973
Leo Esaki
“for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998
Robert B. Laughlin
“for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1937
Paul Karrer
“for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1950
Kurt Alder
“for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1962
Max F. Perutz
“for their studies of the structures of globular proteins”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1965
Robert B. Woodward
“for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980
Walter Gilbert
“for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987
Jean-Marie Lehn
“for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1931
Otto Warburg
“for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1943
Henrik Dam
“for his discovery of vitamin K”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982
Bengt I. Samuelsson
“for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1987
Susumu Tonegawa
“for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995
Eric F. Wieschaus
“for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009
Carol W. Greider
“for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1936
Eugene O’Neill
“for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1906
Theodore Roosevelt

The Nobel Peace Prize 1926
Gustav Stresemann

The Nobel Peace Prize 1958
Georges Pire

The Nobel Peace Prize 1996
Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo
“for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2009
Barack H. Obama
“for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples”

Age 49 (23)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1902
Hendrik A. Lorentz
“in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1928
Owen Willans Richardson
“for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964
Charles H. Townes
“for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975
Ben R. Mottelson
“for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1980
James Cronin
“for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997
Steven Chu
“for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997
William D. Phillips
“for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998
Horst L. Störmer
“for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1901
Jacobus H. van ‘t Hoff
“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1930
Hans Fischer
“for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993
Kary B. Mullis
“for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1911
Allvar Gullstrand
“for his work on the dioptrics of the eye”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1919
Jules Bordet
“for his discoveries relating to immunity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934
George R. Minot
“for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1948
Paul Müller
“for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958
Edward Tatum
“for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963
Alan Hodgkin
“for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978
Werner Arber
“for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991
Bert Sakmann
“for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1993
Phillip A. Sharp
“for their discoveries of split genes”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1911
Maurice Maeterlinck
“in appreciation of his many-sided literary activities, and especially of his dramatic works, which are distinguished by a wealth of imagination and by a poetic fancy, which reveals, sometimes in the guise of a fairy tale, a deep inspiration, while in a mysterious way they appeal to the readers’ own feelings and stimulate their imaginations”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1915
Romain Rolland
“as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1980
Adolfo Pérez Esquivel

Age 50 (21)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1906
J.J. Thomson
“in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958
Il´ja M. Frank
“for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1974
Antony Hewish
“for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1984
Carlo Rubbia
“for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001
Carl Wieman
“for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1902
Emil Fischer
“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1918
Fritz Haber
“for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1927
Heinrich Wieland
“for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1945
Artturi Virtanen
“for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1957
Lord Todd
“for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1961
Melvin Calvin
“for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986
Yuan T. Lee
“for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1989
Sidney Altman
“for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1943
Edward A. Doisy
“for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1957
Daniel Bovet
“for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978
Daniel Nathans
“for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989
Harold E. Varmus
“for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1993
Richard J. Roberts
“for their discoveries of split genes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012
Shinya Yamanaka
“for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1912
Gerhart Hauptmann
“primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1973
Henry Kissinger

Age 51 (14)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903
Henri Becquerel
“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1948
Patrick M.S. Blackett
“for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996
Douglas D. Osheroff
“for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1932
Irving Langmuir
“for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1969
Derek Barton
“for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1988
Robert Huber
“for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947
Carl Cori
“for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947
Gerty Cori
“for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976
Baruch S. Blumberg
“for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977
Andrew V. Schally
“for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014
May-Britt Moser
“for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1909
Selma Lagerlöf
“in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1939
Frans Eemil Sillanpää
“for his deep understanding of his country’s peasantry and the exquisite art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship with Nature”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1972
Kenneth J. Arrow
“for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory”

Age 52 (23)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1993
Joseph H. Taylor Jr.
“for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010
Andre Geim
“for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011
Saul Perlmutter
“for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1904
Sir William Ramsay
“in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1928
Adolf Windaus
“for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1936
Peter Debye
“for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1939
Leopold Ruzicka
“for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1960
Willard F. Libby
“for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1973
Geoffrey Wilkinson
“for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995
Mario J. Molina
“for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014
Stefan W. Hell
“for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1951
Max Theiler
“for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1955
Hugo Theorell
“for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956
Werner Forssmann
“for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964
Konrad Bloch
“for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996
Rolf M. Zinkernagel
“for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001
Sir Paul Nurse
“for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014
Edvard I. Moser
“for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1913
Rabindranath Tagore
“because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1949
William Faulkner
“for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1970
Alexandr Solzhenitsyn
“for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1986
Wole Soyinka
“who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashions the drama of existence”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1921
Christian Lange

Age 53 (21)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915
William Bragg
“for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1936
Victor F. Hess
“for his discovery of cosmic radiation”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975
Aage N. Bohr
“for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979
Abdus Salam
“for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986
Heinrich Rohrer
“for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999
Gerardus ‘t Hooft
“for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004
Frank Wilczek
“for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1954
Linus Pauling
“for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996
Richard E. Smalley
“for their discovery of fullerenes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1999
Ahmed Zewail
“for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950
Tadeus Reichstein
“for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953
Hans Krebs
“for his discovery of the citric acid cycle”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964
Feodor Lynen
“for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976
D. Carleton Gajdusek
“for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977
Roger Guillemin
“for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989
J. Michael Bishop
“for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994
Alfred G. Gilman
“for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
“for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1955
Halldór Laxness
“for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1984
Desmond Tutu

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1997
Robert C. Merton
“for a new method to determine the value of derivatives”

Age 54 (29)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1951
John Cockcroft
“for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956
Walter H. Brattain
“for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958
Pavel A. Cherenkov
“for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1959
Emilio Segrè
“for their discovery of the antiproton”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1962
Lev Landau
“for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977
Philip W. Anderson
“for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2014
Hiroshi Amano
“for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1906
Henri Moissan
“in recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace called after him”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1923
Fritz Pregl
“for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1937
Norman Haworth
“for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1949
William F. Giauque
“for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1955
Vincent du Vigneaud
“for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1964
Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
“for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980
Paul Berg
“for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986
Dudley R. Herschbach
“for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003
Peter Agre
“for the discovery of water channels”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014
Eric Betzig
“for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
“in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908
Paul Ehrlich
“in recognition of their work on immunity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950
Philip S. Hench
“for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953
Fritz Lipmann
“for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959
Severo Ochoa
“for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005
Barry J. Marshall
“for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011
Bruce A. Beutler
“for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1929
Thomas Mann
“principally for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2006
Orhan Pamuk
“who in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1975
Andrei Sakharov

The Nobel Peace Prize 1989
The 14th Dalai Lama

The Nobel Peace Prize 1998
David Trimble
“for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland”

Age 55 (23)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1907
Albert A. Michelson
“for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1923
Robert A. Millikan
“for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1943
Otto Stern
“for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1947
Edward V. Appleton
“for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004
H. David Politzer
“for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946
John H. Northrop
“for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1973
Ernst Otto Fischer
“for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1904
Ivan Pavlov
“in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958
George Beadle
“for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965
Jacques Monod
“for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972
Rodney R. Porter
“for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1979
Allan M. Cormack
“for the development of computer assisted tomography”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981
David H. Hubel
“for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982
John R. Vane
“for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1997
Stanley B. Prusiner
“for his discovery of Prions – a new biological principle of infection”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002
H. Robert Horvitz
“for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1926
Grazia Deledda
“for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1954
Ernest Hemingway
“for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1972
Heinrich Böll
“for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1982
Gabriel García Márquez
“for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent’s life and conflicts”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2010
Liu Xiaobo
“for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1970
Paul A. Samuelson
“for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2008
Paul Krugman
“for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity”

Age 56 (32)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1901
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
“in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1926
Jean Baptiste Perrin
“for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1937
Clinton Davisson
“for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963
J. Hans D. Jensen
“for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1974
Martin Ryle
“for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988
Melvin Schwartz
“for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2015
Takaaki Kajita
“for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1909
Wilhelm Ostwald
“in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1920
Walther Nernst
“in recognition of his work in thermochemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1929
Hans von Euler-Chelpin
“for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972
Christian Anfinsen
“for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1982
Aaron Klug
“for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997
John E. Walker
“for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008
Roger Y. Tsien
“for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934
George H. Whipple
“for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944
Herbert S. Gasser
“for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1946
Hermann J. Muller
“for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1971
Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.
“for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977
Rosalyn Yalow
“for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996
Peter C. Doherty
“for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1922
Jacinto Benavente
“for the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1937
Roger Martin du Gard
“for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novel-cycle Les Thibault

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1945
Gabriela Mistral
“for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1995
Seamus Heaney
“for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2009
Herta Müller
“who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1961
Dag Hammarskjöld

The Nobel Peace Prize 1970
Norman Borlaug

The Nobel Peace Prize 2003
Shirin Ebadi
“for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1990
William F. Sharpe
“for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1997
Myron Scholes
“for a new method to determine the value of derivatives”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2000
James J. Heckman
“for his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2007
Roger B. Myerson
“for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory”

Age 57 (25)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963
Maria Goeppert Mayer
“for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1968
Luis Alvarez
“for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1980
Val Fitch
“for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931
Carl Bosch
“in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1976
William Lipscomb
“for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986
John C. Polanyi
“for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996
Sir Harold Kroto
“for their discovery of fullerenes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004
Aaron Ciechanover
“for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
“for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012
Brian Kobilka
“for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1910
Albrecht Kossel
“in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954
John F. Enders
“for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969
Salvador E. Luria
“for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974
Christian de Duve
“for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981
Torsten N. Wiesel
“for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984
César Milstein
“for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998
Louis J. Ignarro
“for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004
Linda B. Buck
“for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009
Jack W. Szostak
“for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1916
Verner von Heidenstam
“in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1924
Wladyslaw Reymont
“for his great national epic, The Peasants

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2012
Mo Yan
“who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1909
Paul Henri d’Estournelles de Constant

The Nobel Peace Prize 1993
F.W. de Klerk
“for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2007
Eric S. Maskin
“for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory”

Age 58 (20)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1927
C.T.R. Wilson
“for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975
James Rainwater
“for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1912
Paul Sabatier
“for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent years”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1943
George de Hevesy
“for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1975
John Cornforth
“for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1978
Peter Mitchell
“for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1991
Richard R. Ernst
“for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970
Julius Axelrod
“for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001
Tim Hunt
“for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004
Richard Axel
“for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013
Thomas C. Südhof
“for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1923
William Butler Yeats
“for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1959
Salvatore Quasimodo
“for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2004
Elfriede Jelinek
“for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society’s clichés and their subjugating power”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1936
Carlos Saavedra Lamas

The Nobel Peace Prize 1971
Willy Brandt

The Nobel Peace Prize 1986
Elie Wiesel

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1995
Robert E. Lucas Jr.
“for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2001
A. Michael Spence
“for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2001
Joseph E. Stiglitz
“for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information”

Age 59 (20)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909
Ferdinand Braun
“in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1920
Charles Edouard Guillaume
“in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965
Sin-Itiro Tomonaga
“for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1984
Simon van der Meer
“for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1991
Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
“for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996
Robert C. Richardson
“for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998
Daniel C. Tsui
“for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946
James B. Sumner
“for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956
Sir Cyril Hinshelwood
“for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972
Stanford Moore
“for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006
Roger D. Kornberg
“for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1926
Johannes Fibiger
“for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970
Sir Bernard Katz
“for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1905
Henryk Sienkiewicz
“because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1964
Jean-Paul Sartre
“for his work which, rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom and the quest for truth, has exerted a far-reaching influence on our age”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1994
Kenzaburo Oe
“who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1902
Albert Gobat

The Nobel Peace Prize 1913
Henri La Fontaine

The Nobel Peace Prize 1990
Mikhail Gorbachev
“for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2007
Al Gore
“for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change”

Age 60 (31)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1913
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
“for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1918
Max Planck
“in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981
Arthur L. Schawlow
“for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1987
K. Alex Müller
“for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990
Jerome I. Friedman
“for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006
John C. Mather
“for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2014
Shuji Nakamura
“for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1925
Richard Zsigmondy
“for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956
Nikolay Semenov
“for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1963
Giulio Natta
“for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1977
Ilya Prigogine
“for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001
Barry Sharpless
“for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005
Richard R. Schrock
“for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947
Bernardo Houssay
“for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963
Sir John Eccles
“for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1979
Godfrey N. Hounsfield
“for the development of computer assisted tomography”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980
Baruj Benacerraf
“for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002
John E. Sulston
“for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1917
Karl Gjellerup
“for his varied and rich poetry, which is inspired by lofty ideals”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1917
Henrik Pontoppidan
“for his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1948
T.S. Eliot
“for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1951
Pär Lagerkvist
“for the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions confronting mankind”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1962
John Steinbeck
“for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1965
Mikhail Sholokhov
“for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic of the Don, he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian people”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2000
Gao Xingjian
“for an æuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1925
Charles G. Dawes

The Nobel Peace Prize 1957
Lester Bowles Pearson

The Nobel Peace Prize 1978
Anwar al-Sadat

The Nobel Peace Prize 2014
Kailash Satyarthi
“for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1980
Lawrence R. Klein
“for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1996
James A. Mirrlees
“for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information”

Age 61 (33)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963
Eugene Wigner
“for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1967
Hans Bethe
“for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981
Nicolaas Bloembergen
“for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990
Richard E. Taylor
“for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006
George F. Smoot
“for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1947
Sir Robert Robinson
“for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972
William H. Stein
“for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993
Michael Smith
“for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008
Martin Chalfie
“for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014
William E. Moerner
“for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936
Sir Henry Dale
“for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956
André F. Cournand
“for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956
Dickinson W. Richards
“for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1960
Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet
“for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967
George Wald
“for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969
Alfred D. Hershey
“for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975
Renato Dulbecco
“for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi
“for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009
Elizabeth H. Blackburn
“for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1920
Knut Hamsun
“for his monumental work, Growth of the Soil

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1973
Patrick White
“for an epic and psychological narrative art which has introduced a new continent into literature”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1976
Saul Bellow
“for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1921
Hjalmar Branting

The Nobel Peace Prize 1922
Fridtjof Nansen

The Nobel Peace Prize 1933
Sir Norman Angell

The Nobel Peace Prize 1962
Linus Pauling

The Nobel Peace Prize 1998
John Hume
“for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2001
George A. Akerlof
“for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2003
Robert F. Engle III
“for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH)”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2004
Finn E. Kydland
“for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2012
Alvin E. Roth
“for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2013
Lars Peter Hansen
“for their empirical analysis of asset prices”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2014
Jean Tirole
“for his analysis of market power and regulation”

Age 62 (24)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1904
Lord Rayleigh
“for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1970
Hannes Alfvén
“for fundamental work and discoveries in magnetohydro-dynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980
Frederick Sanger
“for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1990
Elias James Corey
“for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995
Paul J. Crutzen
“for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905
Robert Koch
“for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1907
Alphonse Laveran
“in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1928
Charles Nicolle
“for his work on typhus”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930
Karl Landsteiner
“for his discovery of human blood groups”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1961
Georg von Békésy
“for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974
George E. Palade
“for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998
Ferid Murad
“for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001
Leland Hartwell
“for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1901
Sully Prudhomme
“in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart and intellect”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1908
Rudolf Eucken
“in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1992
Derek Walcott
“for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1993
Toni Morrison
“who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1905
Bertha von Suttner

The Nobel Peace Prize 1925
Sir Austen Chamberlain

The Nobel Peace Prize 1960
Albert Lutuli

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1978
Herbert Simon
“for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1983
Gerard Debreu
“for having incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory and for his rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1992
Gary Becker
“for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2010
Christopher A. Pissarides
“for their analysis of markets with search frictions”

Age 63 (33)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1908
Gabriel Lippmann
“for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1954
Walther Bothe
“for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958
Igor Y. Tamm
“for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981
Kai M. Siegbahn
“for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004
David J. Gross
“for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1910
Otto Wallach
“in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1981
Kenichi Fukui
“for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1984
Bruce Merrifield
“for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996
Robert F. Curl Jr.
“for their discovery of fullerenes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001
Ryoji Noyori
“for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005
Robert H. Grubbs
“for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906
Camillo Golgi
“in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908
Ilya Mechnikov
“in recognition of their work on immunity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1913
Charles Richet
“in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936
Otto Loewi
“for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965
André Lwoff
“for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969
Max Delbrück
“for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999
Günter Blobel
“for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013
James E. Rothman
“for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1933
Ivan Bunin
“for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1963
Giorgos Seferis
“for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1969
Samuel Beckett
“for his writing, which – in new forms for the novel and drama – in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2003
J. M. Coetzee
“who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2017
Kazuo Ishiguro
“who, in novels of great emotional force, has uncovered the abyss beneath our illusory sense of connection with the world”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1919
Woodrow Wilson

The Nobel Peace Prize 1973
Le Duc Tho

The Nobel Peace Prize 2001
Kofi Annan
“for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2005
Mohamed ElBaradei
“for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1975
Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich
“for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1981
James Tobin
“for his analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions, employment, production and prices”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1987
Robert M. Solow
“for his contributions to the theory of economic growth”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1990
Harry M. Markowitz
“for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2000
Daniel L. McFadden
“for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice”

Age 64 (30)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1946
Percy W. Bridgman
“for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1966
Alfred Kastler
“for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972
John Bardeen
“for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990
Henry W. Kendall
“for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji
“for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005
Theodor W. Hänsch
“for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008
Makoto Kobayashi
“for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1929
Arthur Harden
“for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1970
Luis Leloir
“for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1974
Paul J. Flory
“for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000
Alan Heeger
“for the discovery and development of conductive polymers”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000
Hideki Shirakawa
“for the discovery and development of conductive polymers”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002
Kurt Wüthrich
“for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1924
Willem Einthoven
“for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945
Sir Alexander Fleming
“for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950
Edward C. Kendall
“for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1952
Selman A. Waksman
“for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967
Keffer Hartline
“for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980
Jean Dausset
“for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986
Stanley Cohen
“for their discoveries of growth factors”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988
Sir James W. Black
“for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1907
Louis Renault

The Nobel Peace Prize 1908
Klas Pontus Arnoldson

The Nobel Peace Prize 1926
Aristide Briand

The Nobel Peace Prize 1930
Nathan Söderblom

The Nobel Peace Prize 2004
Wangari Maathai
“for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1976
Milton Friedman
“for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1979
Sir Arthur Lewis
“for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1994
Reinhard Selten
“for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2004
Edward C. Prescott
“for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles”

Age 65 (17)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1953
Frits Zernike
“for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996
David M. Lee
“for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003
Anthony J. Leggett
“for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2016
F. Duncan M. Haldane
“for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1944
Otto Hahn
“for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1963
Karl Ziegler
“for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1968
Lars Onsager
“for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016
Bernard L. Feringa
“for the design and synthesis of molecular machines”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966
Charles B. Huggins
“for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970
Ulf von Euler
“for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013
Randy W. Schekman
“for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1932
John Galsworthy
“for his distinguished art of narration which takes its highest form in The Forsyte Saga

The Nobel Peace Prize 1978
Menachem Begin

The Nobel Peace Prize 1994
Yasser Arafat
“for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2016
Juan Manuel Santos
“for his resolute efforts to bring the country’s more than 50-year-long civil war to an end”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1975
Tjalling C. Koopmans
“for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1998
Amartya Sen
“for his contributions to welfare economics”

Age 66 (10)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1970
Louis Néel
“for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988
Leon M. Lederman
“for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013
Michael Levitt
“for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1935
Hans Spemann
“for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973
Nikolaas Tinbergen
“for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982
Sune K. Bergström
“for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007
Sir Martin J. Evans
“for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2006
Muhammad Yunus
“for their efforts to create economic and social development from below”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1969
Jan Tinbergen
“for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1994
John F. Nash Jr.
“for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games”

Age 67 (23)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988
Jack Steinberger
“for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989
Hans G. Dehmelt
“for the development of the ion trap technique”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1971
Gerhard Herzberg
“for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1979
Herbert C. Brown
“for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1985
Jerome Karle
“for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1994
George A. Olah
“for his contribution to carbocation chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004
Avram Hershko
“for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933
Thomas H. Morgan
“for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967
Ragnar Granit
“for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1931
Erik Axel Karlfeldt
“The poetry of Erik Axel Karlfeldt”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1934
Luigi Pirandello
“for his bold and ingenious revival of dramatic and scenic art”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1952
François Mauriac
“for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1971
Pablo Neruda
“for a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a continent’s destiny and dreams”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2015
Svetlana Alexievich
“for her polyphonic writings, a monument to suffering and courage in our time”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1912
Elihu Root

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1973
Wassily Leontief
“for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1985
Franco Modigliani
“for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1986
James M. Buchanan Jr.
“for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1990
Merton H. Miller
“for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1993
Robert W. Fogel
“for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1999
Robert Mundell
“for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2013
Robert J. Shiller
“for their empirical analysis of asset prices”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2016
Bengt Holmström
“for their contributions to contract theory”

Age 68 (28)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1992
Georges Charpak
“for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1995
Martin L. Perl
“for the discovery of the tau lepton”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999
Martinus J.G. Veltman
“for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007
Peter Grünberg
“for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008
Toshihide Maskawa
“for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012
Serge Haroche
“for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012
David J. Wineland
“for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1983
Henry Taube
“for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1985
Herbert A. Hauptman
“for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987
Donald J. Cram
“for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995
F. Sherwood Rowland
“for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1909
Theodor Kocher
“for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929
Sir Frederick Hopkins
“for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949
Walter Hess
“for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981
Roger W. Sperry
“for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005
J. Robin Warren
“for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011
Ralph M. Steinman
“for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2017
Michael W. Young
“for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1927
Henri Bergson
“in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1958
Boris Pasternak
“for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1967
Miguel Angel Asturias
“for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1979
Odysseus Elytis
“for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man’s struggle for freedom and creativeness”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1991
Nadine Gordimer
“who through her magnificent epic writing has – in the words of Alfred Nobel – been of very great benefit to humanity”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2008
Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio
“author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1972
John R. Hicks
“for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2002
Daniel Kahneman
“for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2011
Thomas J. Sargent
“for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2016
Oliver Hart
“for their contributions to contract theory”

Age 69 (24)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007
Albert Fert
“for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1959
Jaroslav Heyrovsky
“for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1975
Vladimir Prelog
“for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1992
Rudolph A. Marcus
“for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009
Thomas A. Steitz
“for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012
Robert J. Lefkowitz
“for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2015
Paul Modrich
“for mechanistic studies of DNA repair”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2015
Aziz Sancar
“for mechanistic studies of DNA repair”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994
Martin Rodbell
“for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1925
George Bernard Shaw
“for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1946
Hermann Hesse
“for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1961
Ivo Andric
“for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1968
Yasunari Kawabata
“for his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the essence of the Japanese mind”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1980
Czeslaw Milosz
“who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man’s exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2001
V. S. Naipaul
“for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2014
Patrick Modiano
“for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1902
Élie Ducommun

The Nobel Peace Prize 1920
Léon Bourgeois

The Nobel Peace Prize 1927
Ludwig Quidde

The Nobel Peace Prize 1931
Nicholas Murray Butler

The Nobel Peace Prize 1949
Lord Boyd Orr

The Nobel Peace Prize 1979
Mother Teresa

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2003
Clive W.J. Granger
“for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends (cointegration)”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2011
Christopher A. Sims
“for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy”

Age 70 (21)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000
Zhores Alferov
“for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1905
Adolf von Baeyer
“in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1966
Robert S. Mulliken
“for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967
Ronald G.W. Norrish
“for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009
Ada E. Yonath
“for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2011
Dan Shechtman
“for the discovery of quasicrystals”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1927
Julius Wagner-Jauregg
“for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944
Joseph Erlanger
“for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973
Konrad Lorenz
“for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988
Gertrude B. Elion
“for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990
E. Donnall Thomas
“for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003
Sir Peter Mansfield
“for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007
Mario R. Capecchi
“for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011
Jules A. Hoffmann
“for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1974
Harry Martinson
“for writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1959
Philip Noel-Baker

The Nobel Peace Prize 1974
Seán MacBride

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1971
Simon Kuznets
“for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1977
James E. Meade
“for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2010
Peter A. Diamond
“for their analysis of markets with search frictions”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2015
Angus Deaton
“for his analysis of consumption, poverty, and welfare”

Age 71 (21)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1971
Dennis Gabor
“for his invention and development of the holographic method”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002
Riccardo Giacconi
“for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005
John L. Hall
“for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2007
Gerhard Ertl
“for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929
Christiaan Eijkman
“for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990
Joseph E. Murray
“for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000
Eric Kandel
“for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2016
Yoshinori Ohsumi
“for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1903
Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
“as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1906
Giosuè Carducci
“not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1944
Johannes V. Jensen
“for the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with which is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly creative style”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1997
Dario Fo
“who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1908
Fredrik Bajer

The Nobel Peace Prize 1931
Jane Addams

The Nobel Peace Prize 1934
Arthur Henderson

The Nobel Peace Prize 1982
Alfonso García Robles

The Nobel Peace Prize 1994
Shimon Peres
“for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2008
Martti Ahtisaari
“for his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1982
George J. Stigler
“for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1984
Richard Stone
“for having made fundamental contributions to the development of systems of national accounts and hence greatly improved the basis for empirical economic analysis”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2010
Dale T. Mortensen
“for their analysis of markets with search frictions”

Age 72 (19)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1954
Max Born
“for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977
Sir Nevill F. Mott
“for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1983
William A. Fowler
“for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000
Herbert Kroemer
“for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2015
Arthur B. McDonald
“for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1953
Hermann Staudinger
“for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1969
Odd Hassel
“for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016
Jean-Pierre Sauvage
“for the design and synthesis of molecular machines”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2017
Richard Henderson
“for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992
Edmond H. Fischer
“for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008
Harald zur Hausen
“for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2017
Jeffrey C. Hall
“for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1904
José Echegaray
“in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1983
William Golding
“for his novels which, with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1985
Claude Simon
“who in his novel combines the poet’s and the painter’s creativeness with a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1999
Günter Grass
“whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1951
Léon Jouhaux

The Nobel Peace Prize 1994
Yitzhak Rabin
“for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2017
Richard H. Thaler
“for his contributions to behavioural economics”

Age 73 (21)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1910
Johannes Diderik van der Waals
“for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1983
Subramanyan Chandrasekhar
“for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2016
J. Michael Kosterlitz
“for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998
John Pople
“for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000
Alan MacDiarmid
“for the discovery and development of conductive polymers”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013
Arieh Warshel
“for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984
Niels K. Jerne
“for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2017
Michael Rosbash
“for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1960
Saint-John Perse
“for the soaring flight and the evocative imagery of his poetry which in a visionary fashion reflects the conditions of our time”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1989
Camilo José Cela
“for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man’s vulnerability”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1996
Wislawa Szymborska
“for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2002
Imre Kertész
“for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1901
Henry Dunant

The Nobel Peace Prize 1911
Tobias Asser

The Nobel Peace Prize 1929
Frank B. Kellogg

The Nobel Peace Prize 1937
Robert Cecil

The Nobel Peace Prize 1953
George C. Marshall

The Nobel Peace Prize 1974
Eisaku Sato

The Nobel Peace Prize 2011
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf
“for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women’s rights to full participation in peace-building work”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1993
Douglass C. North
“for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2006
Edmund S. Phelps
“for his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy”

Age 74 (15)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989
Norman F. Ramsey
“for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1950
Otto Diels
“for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016
Sir J. Fraser Stoddart
“for the design and synthesis of molecular machines”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992
Edwin G. Krebs
“for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003
Paul C. Lauterbur
“for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1904
Frédéric Mistral
“in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1919
Carl Spitteler
“in special appreciation of his epic, Olympian Spring

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1974
Eyvind Johnson
“for a narrative art, far-seeing in lands and ages, in the service of freedom”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1978
Isaac Bashevis Singer
“for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2010
Mario Vargas Llosa
“for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual’s resistance, revolt, and defeat”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1907
Ernesto Teodoro Moneta

The Nobel Peace Prize 1945
Cordell Hull

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1969
Ragnar Frisch
“for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1994
John C. Harsanyi
“for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2013
Eugene F. Fama
“for their empirical analysis of asset prices”

Age 75 (21)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003
Alexei Abrikosov
“for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998
Walter Kohn
“for his development of the density-functional theory”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005
Yves Chauvin
“for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010
Ei-ichi Negishi
“for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2017
Jacques Dubochet
“for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1932
Sir Charles Sherrington
“for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949
Egas Moniz
“for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974
Albert Claude
“for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000
Paul Greengard
“for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002
Sydney Brenner
“for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014
John O’Keefe
“for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1956
Juan Ramón Jiménez
“for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1966
Nelly Sachs
“for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel’s destiny with touching strength”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2005
Harold Pinter
“who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression’s closed rooms”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2016
Bob Dylan
“for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1903
Randal Cremer

The Nobel Peace Prize 1993
Nelson Mandela
“for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2000
Kim Dae-jung
“for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1974
Friedrich von Hayek
“for their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2002
Vernon L. Smith
“for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2005
Robert J. Aumann
“for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis”

Age 76 (10)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989
Wolfgang Paul
“for the development of the ion trap technique”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1994
Bertram N. Brockhouse
“for the development of neutron spectroscopy”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002
Masatoshi Koshiba
“for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009
Charles K. Kao
“for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008
Luc Montagnier
“for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1981
Elias Canetti
“for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1990
Octavio Paz
“for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1998
José Saramago
“who with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusory reality”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1974
Gunnar Myrdal
“for their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2009
Elinor Ostrom
“for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons”

Age 77 (15)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1995
Frederick Reines
“for the detection of the neutrino”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000
Jack Kilby
“for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2017
Kip S. Thorne
“for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2015
Tomas Lindahl
“for mechanistic studies of DNA repair”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2017
Joachim Frank
“for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980
George D. Snell
“for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986
Rita Levi-Montalcini
“for their discoveries of growth factors”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995
Edward B. Lewis
“for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000
Arvid Carlsson
“for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1921
Anatole France
“in recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, grace, and a true Gallic temperament”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1988
Naguib Mahfouz
“who, through works rich in nuance – now clear-sightedly realistic, now evocatively ambiguous – has formed an Arabian narrative art that applies to all mankind”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1952
Albert Schweitzer

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1979
Theodore W. Schultz
“for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1988
Maurice Allais
“for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2009
Oliver E. Williamson
“for his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm”

Age 78 (8)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977
John H. Van Vleck
“for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004
Irwin Rose
“for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1947
André Gide
“for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1950
Bertrand Russell
“in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1966
Shmuel Agnon
“for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people”

The Nobel Peace Prize 2002
Jimmy Carter
“for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1977
Bertil Ohlin
“for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1989
Trygve Haavelmo
“for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and his analyses of simultaneous economic structures”

Age 79 (11)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1994
Clifford G. Shull
“for the development of the neutron diffraction technique”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009
George E. Smith
“for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997
Paul D. Boyer
“for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997
Jens C. Skou
“for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010
Richard F. Heck
“for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012
Sir John B. Gurdon
“for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1953
Winston Churchill
“for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1975
Eugenio Montale
“for his distinctive poetry which, with great artistic sensitivity, has interpreted human values under the sign of an outlook on life with no illusions”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1977
Vicente Aleixandre
“for a creative poetic writing which illuminates man’s condition in the cosmos and in present-day society, at the same time representing the great renewal of the traditions of Spanish poetry between the wars”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1901
Frédéric Passy

The Nobel Peace Prize 1946
Emily Greene Balch

Age 80 (9)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986
Ernst Ruska
“for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005
Roy J. Glauber
“for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008
Osamu Shimomura
“for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010
Akira Suzuki
“for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2015
Satoshi Ōmura
“for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1910
Paul Heyse
“as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2011
Tomas Tranströmer
“because, through his condensed, translucent images, he gives us fresh access to reality”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1909
Auguste Beernaert

The Nobel Peace Prize 1982
Alva Myrdal

Age 81 (6)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013
François Englert
“for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2017
Barry C. Barish
“for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1983
Barbara McClintock
“for her discovery of mobile genetic elements”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1946
John R. Mott

The Nobel Peace Prize 1968
René Cassin

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1991
Ronald H. Coase
“for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy”

Age 82 (6)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2016
David J. Thouless
“for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1979
Georg Wittig
“for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998
Robert F. Furchgott
“for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007
Oliver Smithies
“for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2013
Alice Munro
“master of the contemporary short story”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 1996
William Vickrey
“for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information”

Age 83 (4)

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987
Charles J. Pedersen
“for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013
Martin Karplus
“for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988
George H. Hitchings
“for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1984
Jaroslav Seifert
“for his poetry which endowed with freshness, sensuality and rich inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man”

Age 84 (4)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978
Pyotr Kapitsa
“for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013
Peter Higgs
“for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001
William Knowles
“for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions”

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2005
Thomas C. Schelling
“for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis”

Age 85 (8)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009
Willard S. Boyle
“for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2014
Isamu Akasaki
“for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2017
Rainer Weiss
“for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves”

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002
John B. Fenn
“for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2010
Robert G. Edwards
“for the development of in vitro fertilization”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2015
William C. Campbell
“for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2015
Youyou Tu
“for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against Malaria”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 1902
Theodor Mommsen
“the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A history of Rome

Age 86 (1)

The Nobel Peace Prize 1927
Ferdinand Buisson

Age 87 (5)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003
Vitaly L. Ginzburg
“for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids”

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008
Yoichiro Nambu
“for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966
Peyton Rous
“for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973
Karl von Frisch
“for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns”

The Nobel Peace Prize 1995
Joseph Rotblat
“for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms”

Age 88 (2)

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002
Raymond Davis Jr.
“for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos”

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2007
Doris Lessing
“that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny”

Age 89 (1)

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2012
Lloyd S. Shapley
“for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design”

Age 90 (1)

The Prize in Economic Sciences 2007
Leonid Hurwicz
“for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory”

Press release

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET

October 1977

The Karolinska Institute has decided that the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 1977 should be divided, one half being awarded jointly to

Roger Guillemin and Andrew Schally

for their discoveries concerning “the peptide hormone production of the brain” and the other half to

Rosalyn Yalow

for “the development of radioimmunoassays of peptid hormones”.

This year’s Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine have made their discoveries within the field of peptide hormones (peptides being substances built up by chains of amino acids). Many hormones in the body belong to this group and are produced by the hypophysis, the thyroid gland, the parathyroid glands, the placenta, the gastro-intestinal tract and other tissues. New such hormones are still being discovered.

While chemical methods for quantitative analysis of other hormones in blood and urine were in common use in the middle 1950’s, such specific analytical procedures were not available for peptide hormones. The main, but not the only reason for this was their occurrence in blood in extremely low concentrations. For example, the molar concentration of pituitary ACTH under basal conditions is 1 x 10-12 . To measure such a small amount of ACTH with prevailing biological methods as much as 250 ml of blood was necessary!

The lack of specific procedures to measure peptide hormones in blood with some degree of accuracy brought about stagnation within a large section of biological and medical research. And what was worse, on the basis of unreliable biological determinations of peptide hormones, hypotheses on physiological mechanisms and pathological events were advanced which led research astray.

The contributions of Rosalyn Yalow have to be regarded in the light of this context. Together with her late coworker, Solomon Berson, she was able to pull down this barrier to development – and this was accomplished in a most unexpected way. Yalow and Berson, towards the middle 1950’s made the surprising finding that people who had received injections of the polypeptide hormone insulin – be it for diabetes or for treatment of schizophrenia – had developed antibodies against the hormone. This conflicted with the prevailing concept which was that such a small protein as insulin could not be antigenic. It took considerable time before this was accepted. In addition, some other findings were made that would become crucial to this whole field of research: the insulin antibodies formed a soluble complex with added insulin labeled with radioactive iodine and, furthermore, when non-labeled insulin was added to this mixture it could displace the labeled insulin bound to the antibody. This may be expressed in another way: the percentage binding of labeled insulin to the antibodies is a function of the total insulin concentration in the solution. This was to become the starting-point for radioimmunological determination of insulin and, later, for all peptide hormones in blood, other fluids and tissues.

In a series of brilliant, now classical papers between 1956-60 they described the radioimmunological assay method (or RIA) in detail. It was accomplished by a spectacular combination of immunology, isotope research, mathematics and physics. RIA is so sensitive that it allowed determination of insulin in amounts as small as 10-20 pg and ACTH in an amount less than 1 pg (or one thousand-billionth g) per ml.

RIA brought about a revolution in biological and medical research. We have today at our disposal a large number of RIA-like procedures, so-called ligand methods, for determination of almost anything we wish to measure: peptide hormones, hormones that are not peptides, peptides that are not hormones, enzymes, viruses, antibodies, drugs of the most different kinds etc. This has brought about an enormous development in hitherto closed areas of research.

But Yalow’s contributions were not limited to presenting us with RIA. In a series of classical articles she and her coworkers, with the aid of RIA, were able to elucidate the physiology of the peptide hormones insulin, ACTH, growth hormone, and also to throw light upon the pathogenesis of diseases caused by abnormal secretion of these hormones. Thus, they directed diabetes research into new tracks and gave it a new dimension. This was pioneering work at the highest level. It had an enormous impact. We were witnessing the birth of a new era in endocrinology, one that started with Yalow. This modern endocrinology continues to develop and gives us continuously new outlooks on the causes and nature of diseases within the whole spectrum of medicine.

The discoveries of Roger Guillemin and Andrew Schally deal with another sector of peptide hormone physiology and medicine.

The pituitary gland secretes a number of hormones which are transported with the blood to most hormone producing glands in the body. In these, they stimulate their specific function – to produce and release hormones. It has long been known that the central nervous system in some way could modulate endocrine functions and that, probably, the brain stem – the hypothalamus – acted as an intermediary in this process. In some way, information was passed to the hypophysis which, by way of its specific hormones, transferred the information to the other endocrine glands. As early as 1930, it was discovered that small blood vessels connected the hypophysis with the hypothalamus, and that these might be the route of transport of the information from the brain to the hypophysis.

Towards the end of the 1950’s, Guillemin and Schally, each in his own laboratory, were able to extract from the hypothalamus of sheep and pigs some compounds which, when administered to pituitary tissue, brought about release of its hormones. One extract made the pituitary release ACTH, another TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone), a third one LH and FSH (the gonadotrophic hormones) etc. They termed these substances “releasing factors or hormones”, RF or RH. The one inducing the release of TSH, thus was called TSH-RF or TRF.

However, it was not until 1969 that the nature of these hypothalamic factors would be established. Guillemin was working with 5 million hypothalamic fragments from sheep, and Schally with the same amount of material but from pigs. They concentrated their efforts to the search for one of the releasing factors, TRF. After years of struggle, during which the two groups established a formidable race, they stood there one day with 1 mg (!) of a pure substance with one single mode of action: it released TSH from the hypophysis. This was TRF. After another few months the structure of TRF was established. It is an extremely small peptide composed of three amino acids in a special fashion:

Within the same year TRF was synthesized by the Guillemin group.

The ice was broken. Within two years LH-RH was isolated, sequenced and synthesized, firstly by Schally and shortly afterwards by Guillemin.

Guillemin’s and Schally’s discoveries laid the foundations to modern hypothalamic research. The experiences from animal research was rapidly transferred to humans and brought into clinical work. Several new peptides were isolated from the hypothalamus, the foremost one probably being the first inhibitor of pituitary function: somatostatin, which decreases the production of pituitary growth hormone.

As an extension of Guillemin’s and Schally’s discoveries may be regarded the exciting finding of peptides in the brain with morphine-like activity, the endorphines. Peptides with hormone-like activity have also been identified in other parts of the brain. The central nervous system more and more moves forward as an endocrine organ, which opens fascinating perspectives in medicine. We are looking forward to an enormous development in this field, to which Guillemin and Schally opened the door.

The important discoveries by the 1977 Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine has led to a formidable development of their own fields of research. Further, they have opened new vistas within biological and medical research far outside the borders of their own spheres of interest.

Award ceremony speech

 

Presentation Speech by Professor Rolf Luft of the Karolinska Medico-Chirurgical Institute

Translation from the Swedish text

Your Majesties, Your Royal Highnesses, Ladies and Gentlemen,

The word “hormones” and associated terms have always stimulated our fantasy. The mystery in connection with hormones has been, from the beginning, equally overwhelming to the researcher and the layman. It is easy to understand why. These were chemical substances with often very powerful actions at concentrations which for a long time seemed so low that they were impossible to measure. However, mystery and belief lead nowhere, at least not in scientific research and medicine. Once one learned to identify the active chemical substances – in this case hormones – and to measure their rate of synthesis, only then did one establish a firm basis for turning fantasy and mystery into reality.

This year’s three Nobel laureates in medicine have all made contributions which are outstanding examples of this kind of activity. Rosalyn Yalow’s name is for ever associated with her methodology of measuring the presence of hormones in the blood at concentrations as low as one thousand billionths of a gram per milliliter of blood. This was a necessity, since a great many hormones, primarily the so-called protein hormones, are present in the blood in such small quantities. Before Yalow, these hormones could not be determined quantitatively in the blood, and therefore, active research in this field had stagnated.

Rosalyn Yalow and Solomon Berson, her late coworker, discovered by chance that one small protein hormone, insulin, following injection into man resulted in a production of antibodies against insulin. All diabetics who receive insulin develop similar antibodies against the administered insulin. The discovery by Yalow and Berson was unacceptable at first – their first scientific paper concerning this observation was even refused publication – since it was commonly believed that proteins as small as these protein hormones were unable to stimulate antibody formation. However, Yalow and Berson did not give up, and furthermore, after a couple of years of intensive work, they presented in 1960 a methodology for the determination of protein hormones in the blood, the fundamental principle of which utilized the ability of these hormones to stimulate antibody formation in man. This methodology, known as the Yalow-Berson method, is genial in all its simplicity, and can even be described in simple terms.

As a result of mixing in a test tube a known quantity of radioactive insulin with a known quantity of antibodies against insulin, a specific amount of the insulin becomes attached to these antibodies. Subsequently, if one adds to this mixture a small amount of blood which contains insulin, the insulin of the blood becomes similarly attached to the antibodies and a certain portion of the radioactive insulin is detached from the antibodies. The higher the concentration of insulin is in the blood sample, the larger is the amount of radioactive insulin that will be detached from the antibodies. The amount of radioactive insulin thus removed can easily be determined, providing an exact measure of the amount of insulin present in the blood sample.

The Yalow-Berson method which makes it possible to determine the exact amounts of all hormones present, represented a real revolution in the field of hormone research. A field where one refers to the time period before Yalow, and the new epoch which began with her achievement. Her methodology and the modifications thereof, subsequently made their triumphant journey far beyond her own field of research, reaching into vast territories of biology and medicine. It has been said that Yalow changed the life of a multitude of researchers within these fields. Rarely have so many had so few to thank for so much.

Roger Guillemin and Andrew Schally have also contributed greatly to this field of research, exploring protein hormones. It is justifiable to say that they have uncovered a substantial part of the link between body and soul.

For decades, one has talked about the indivisible homo sapiens, maintaining that our body and soul can not be separated since they form an entity. Emotional and psychic phenomena do influence our bodily functions. Let me give you an example. When American soldiers were sent to the European war scene, thousands of female companions who were left behind, stopped menstruation. They were completely healthy, but the emotional stress had an influence on certain body functions, causing these functions to cease. Through which mechanisms did the psyche thus influence the body?

Psychic phenomena as well as input from the entire body bring about electrical impulses in the brain. This is the language of the nervous system, the brain speaks “electrically”. The brain informs some of its centers of what is going on, and these centers relay the message further. Those centers which pass on the information to the hormone producing organs of the body are situated in the midbrain, an area on the base of the brain. Delicate blood vessels in turn connect the midbrain with the pituitary, an important hormone producing gland, often referred to as the hypophysis. This sequence provides the pathway for transmission of information from the surroundings to the brain, to the midbrain, to the pituitary, and thus to all those bodily functions which are influenced and controlled by hormones.

By the mid 1950’s it was evident – also here through the contributions of Guillemin and Schally – that the midbrain produces chemical substances which are transported to the pituitary via the delicate blood vessels just mentioned. Once in the pituitary, they determine the exact quantities of the various hypophyseal hormones which must be produced at a given point in time. But which were these substances in the midbrain, evidently passing the information from soul to body?

Guillemin and Schally worked independently in different parts of the U.S.A. together with their large staff of coworkers, trying to isolate one of these chemical substances, and both researchers concentrated on the same substance. Each started with five million pieces taken from the midbrain of sheep and pigs – half a ton – and in 1969, after years of arduous labor, they each came up with 1 milligram of the purified hormonal substance. Rarely have so many gained so little from so much.

Guillemin and Schally were the first to isolate several of the communicating chemical links between the brain and the pituitary, and they also determined their structure and succeeded in synthesizing them.

The discoveries by Guillemin and Schally brought on a revolution in their own field of research. Still other protein hormones have subsequently been isolated from the midbrain, this wondrous organ of control and guidance which today – more than ever – emerges as part of the link between the body (soma) and the soul (brain).

Rosalyn Yalow, Roger Guillemin, Andrew Schally: the road of every scientist is paved by frustration. But some reach the goal they have set up and enjoy the pleasure and excitement of having learned something that no one knew before, and for that enjoy imperishable honor in the learned world.

Few ever reach the point at which you have arrived: to undertake a formidable task and to come to a solution, which not only attracts the admiration of your scientific colleagues, but which – in the best spirit of Alfred Nobel – also contains a possibility to understand the structure of human life and human behaviour.

The Karolinska Institute is happy to be able to award you this year’s Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for your contributions and congratulates you. May I now ask you to receive the insignia of the Nobel Prize from His Majesty, the King.

From Nobel Lectures, Physiology or Medicine 1971-1980, Editor Jan Lindsten, World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore, 1992