Masatoshi Koshiba held his Nobel Lecture December 8, 2002, at Aula Magna, Stockholm University. He was presented by Professor Mats Jonson, Chairman of the Nobel Committee for Physics. Summary: Raymond Davis' findings provided the impetus to study solar neutrinos using Kamiokande, an imaging water Cherenkov detector. Kamiokande not only confirmed Davis' findings that there is a deficit of solar neutrinos, but also it showed that the neutrinos it was detecting came from the direction of the sun. Kamiokande also detected a neutrino burst from the supernova, SN 1987A, confirming theories about the physics of supernova explosions. New powerful 50-cm photomultiplier tubes were developed for the 50,000-tonne Super-Kamiokande detector, and in 1998 this provided the first evidence for neutrino oscillations in atmospheric neutrinos.
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