The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1911
Marie Curie, née Sklodowska
Born: 7 November 1867, Warsaw, Russian Empire (now Poland)
Died: 4 July 1934, Sallanches, France
Affiliation at the time of the award: Sorbonne University, Paris, France
Prize motivation: "in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element"
Field: nuclear chemistry
The 1897 discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel inspired Marie and Pierre Curie to investigate further this phenomenon. They examined several substances and minerals for radioactivity. They found that the mineral pitchblende was more active than uranium and concluded that it must contain other radioactive substances. They managed to extract two previously unknown elements: polonium and radium, both of them more radioactive than uranium.