The Nobel Prize in Physics 1932
Werner Karl Heisenberg
Born: 5 December 1901, Würzburg, Germany
Died: 1 February 1976, Munich, West Germany (now Germany)
Affiliation at the time of the award: Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany
Prize motivation: "for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"
Field: quantum mechanics
Werner Heisenberg received his Nobel Prize one year later, in 1933.
In Niels Bohr's theory of the atom, the electrons absorb and emit radiation of fixed wavelengths when jumping between the fixed orbits around a nucleus. The theory gave a good description of the spectrum from the hydrogen atom, but need to be further developed for more complicated atoms and molecules. In 1925, Werner Heisenberg formulated a quantum mechanics based on so called matrixes. In 1927, he proposed the 'uncertainty relation' giving limits to the precision with which the position and velocity of a particle can be simultaneously determined.