Jerome I. Friedman
Born: 28 March 1930, Chicago, IL, USA
Affiliation at the time of the award: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA
Prize motivation: "for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"
Field: particle physics
Prize share: 1/3
Normal matter is made up of atoms with a nucleus of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons. In experiments around 1970, Jerome Friedman, Henry Kendall and Richard Taylor sent high energy electrons from an accelerator against a target with protons and neutrons. They investigated how the electrons were scattered in the reactions and how other particles were produced. The results gave strong support for the theory that protons and neutrons are built from quarks.