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The Nobel Peace Prize 1901
Henry Dunant, Frédéric Passy

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Henry Dunant - Facts

Jean Henry Dunant

Jean Henry Dunant

Born: 8 May 1828, Geneva, Switzerland

Died: 30 October 1910, Heiden, Switzerland

Residence at the time of the award: Switzerland

Role: Originator Geneva Convention (Convention de Genève), Founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva

Field: humanitarian work, peace movement

Prize share: 1/2

Founder of the Red Cross

In 1859, a battle was raging at the town of Solferino in Northern Italy. There the Swiss businessman Henry Dunant saw thousands of Italian, French and Austrian soldiers killing and maiming each other. On his own initiative, he organized aid work. Later he wrote the book A Memory of Solferino, which contained a plan: all countries should form associations to help the sick and wounded on the battlefield - whichever side they belonged to.

The result was the establishment of the International Committee of the Red Cross in 1863, and the adoption of the Geneva Convention in the following year. It laid down that all wounded soldiers in a land war should be treated as friends. Medical personnel would be protected by the red cross in a white field.

For Dunant personally, financial difficulties led to poverty and loss of social respect. But the organization he had created grew, and the underlying ideas won gradual acceptance. It pleased the ageing Dunant that the Norwegian Nobel Committee rewarded his life's work with the Nobel Peace Prize.

Copyright © The Norwegian Nobel Institute
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