The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956
William B. Shockley, John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain
Born: 23 May 1908, Madison, WI, USA
Died: 30 January 1991, Boston, MA, USA
Affiliation at the time of the award: University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA
Prize motivation: "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"
Field: instrumentation, semiconductor technology