The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001
Eric A. Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle, Carl E. Wieman
Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Dilute Gas; The First 70 Years and Some Recent Experiments
Carl E. Wieman held his Nobel Lecture December 8, 2001, at Aula Magna, Stockholm University. He was presented by Professor Mats Jonson, Chairman of the Nobel Committee for Physics.
Summary: Einstein predicted Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in 1925, and Wieman outlines the background of BEC and the general framework of the experiments that allowed BEC to be created in a gas. BEC does not occur in nature because temperatures are not low enough. Techniques to achieve BEC include laser cooling and magnetic trapping. The early results achieved around 1995 were based on 1,000 – 100,000 atoms in the transition to BEC. Second-generation experiments contain millions of atoms.
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From Les Prix Nobel. The Nobel Prizes 2001, Editor Tore Frängsmyr, [Nobel Foundation], Stockholm, 2002
MLA style: "Carl E. Wieman - Nobel Lecture: Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Dilute Gas; The First 70 Years and Some Recent Experiments". Nobelprize.org. 19 May 2013 http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2001/wieman-lecture.html