Carl E. Wieman
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001
Born: 26 March 1951, Corvallis, OR, USA
Affiliation at the time of the award: University of Colorado, JILA, Boulder, CO, USA
Prize motivation: "for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates."
Prize share: 1/3
One of the fundamental numbers in the world of quantum mechanics is the spin quantum number. Particles and atoms that have whole-number spin are described by other rules and equations than those that have half-number spin. Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein predicted in 1924 that at very low temperatures atoms with whole-number spin would be able to concentrate themselves in the lowest energy state and form a Bose-Einstein condensate. In 1995 Carl Wieman and Eric Cornell succeeded in proving the phenomenon in a rarefied gas of rubidium atoms at an extremely low temperature.
Their work and discoveries range from the formation of black holes and genetic scissors to efforts to combat hunger and develop new auction formats.
See them all presented here.