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 Early Life on Earth
(1992, NS 84)
Harrick Baltscheffsky, Stefan Bengtson, Jan Bergström, Gonzalo Vidal, Andrew Knoll
May 15-21, Björkborn Manor, Karlskoga
Proceedings: Stefan Bengtson, Jan Bergström, Gonzalo Vidal, Andrew Knoll: Early Life on Earth (1994),
Columbia University Press, New York, USA
ISBN 0-231-08088-3

 

Table of Contents  
Preface Approaches to understanding early life on Earth vii
Introduction: The coherence of history
Stephen Jay Gould
1
Theme 1: Life's Gestation and Infancy
The planetary setting of prebiotic evolution
Sherwood Chang
10
Early environments: Constraints and opportunities for early evolution
Donald R. Lowe
24
Earth's early atmosphere: Constraints and opportunities for early evolution
Kenneth M. Towe
36
Early chemical stages in the origin of life
Juan Oró
48
The transition from non-living to living
Antonio Lazcano
60
The RNA world, its predecessors and descendants
Antonio Lazcano
70
Molecular origin and evolution of early biological energy conversion
Herrick Baltscheffsky and Margareta Baltscheffsky
81
Sources and geochemical evolution of RNA precursor molecules: The role of phosphate
Benjamin Gedulin and Gustaf Arrhenius
91
Self-assembly and function of primitive membrane structures
David W. Deamer, Elizabeth Harang Mahon, and Giovanni Bosco
107
Vitalysts and virulysts: A theory of self-expanding reproduction
Günter Wächtershäuser
124
Protocell life cycles
Leo W. Buss
133
Early evolution of genes and genomes
Tomoko Ohta
135
The lesson of Archaebacteria
Karl O. Stetter
143
The early diversification of life
Otto Kandler
152
The emergence, diversification, and role of photosynthetic eubacteria
Beverly K. Pierson
161
The origin of eukaryotes and evolution into major kingdoms
Mitchell L. Sogin
181
The oldest known records of life: Early Archean stromatolites, microfossils, and organic matter
J. William Schopf
193
Theme 2: The Maturation of Earth and Life  
The Archean-Proterozoic transition and its environmental implication
Ján Veizer
208
Global methanotrophy at the Archean-Proterozoic transition
John M. Hayes
220
Early Proterozoic atmospheric change
Heinrich D. Holland
237
Trends in Precambrian carbonate sediments and their implication for understanding evolution
John P. Grotzinger
245
Biomarkers in the Proterozoic record
Guy Ourisson
259
Stromatolites: The main source of information on the evolution of the early benthos
Malcolm R. Walter
270
Proterozoic eukaryotes: Evidence from biology and geology
Bruce Runnegar
287
Early ecosystems: Limitations imposed by the fossil record
Gonzalo Vidal
298
The role of phenotypic comparisons of living protists in the determination of probable eukaryotic phylogeny
F.J.R. "Max" Taylor
312
Combinatorial generation of taxonomic diversity: Implication of symbiogenesis for the Proterozoic fossil record
Lynn Margulis and Joel E. Cohen
327
The continuing importance of cyanobacteria
Stjepko Golubic
334
Theme 3: Multicellularity and the Phanerozoic Revolution
Proterozoic carbonaceous compressions ("metaphytes" and "worms")
Hans J. Hofmann
342
Early multicellular fossils
Sun Weiguo
358
Vendian body fossils and trace fossils
Mikhail A. Fedonkin
370
Early multicellular life: Late Proterozoic fossils and the Cambrian explosion
Adolf Seilacher
389
The Cambrian explosion
James W. Valentine
401
The advent of animal skeletons
Stefan Bengtson
412
Evolution of algal and cyanobacterial calcification
Robert Riding
426
Neoproterozoic evolution and environmental change
Andrew H. Knoll
439
Early metazoan evolution: First steps to an integration of molecular and morphological data
Simon Conway Morris
450
Ideas on early animal evolution
Jan Bergström
460
Molecular phylogeny and the origin of Metazoa
Richard Christen
467
Evolution of the "lower" Metazoa
Reinhard M. Rieger
475
Developmental mechanisms in the evolution of animal form: Origins and evolvability of body plans
Rudolf A. Raff
489
From protein domains to extinct phyla: Reverse-engineering approaches to the evolution of biological complexities
George L. Gabor Miklos and K.S.W. Campbell
501
References 517
Index 599

 

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