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Collage: Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, Henry Taube, Ernest Rutherford, Ada E. Yonath and Otto Wallach

All Nobel Prizes in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded 105 times to 166 Nobel Laureates between 1901 and 2013. Frederick Sanger is the only Nobel Laureate who has been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry twice, in 1958 and 1980. This means that a total of 165 individuals have received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Click on the links to get more information.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013

Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel

"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012

Robert J. Lefkowitz and Brian K. Kobilka

"for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2011

Dan Shechtman

"for the discovery of quasicrystals"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010

Richard F. Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi and Akira Suzuki

"for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009

Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A. Steitz and Ada E. Yonath

"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008

Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Y. Tsien

"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2007

Gerhard Ertl

"for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006

Roger D. Kornberg

"for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005

Yves Chauvin, Robert H. Grubbs and Richard R. Schrock

"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004

Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose

"for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003

"for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes"

Peter Agre

"for the discovery of water channels"

Roderick MacKinnon

"for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002

"for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules"

John B. Fenn and Koichi Tanaka

"for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules"

Kurt Wüthrich

"for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001

William S. Knowles and Ryoji Noyori

"for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions"

K. Barry Sharpless

"for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000

Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa

"for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1999

Ahmed H. Zewail

"for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998

Walter Kohn

"for his development of the density-functional theory"

John A. Pople

"for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997

Paul D. Boyer and John E. Walker

"for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"

Jens C. Skou

"for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995

Paul J. Crutzen, Mario J. Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland

"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1994

George A. Olah

"for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993

"for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry"

Kary B. Mullis

"for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method"

Michael Smith

"for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1992

Rudolph A. Marcus

"for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1991

Richard R. Ernst

"for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1990

Elias James Corey

"for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1989

Sidney Altman and Thomas R. Cech

"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1988

Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber and Hartmut Michel

"for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987

Donald J. Cram, Jean-Marie Lehn and Charles J. Pedersen

"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986

Dudley R. Herschbach, Yuan T. Lee and John C. Polanyi

"for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1985

Herbert A. Hauptman and Jerome Karle

"for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1984

Robert Bruce Merrifield

"for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1983

Henry Taube

"for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1982

Aaron Klug

"for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1981

Kenichi Fukui and Roald Hoffmann

"for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980

Paul Berg

"for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"

Walter Gilbert and Frederick Sanger

"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1979

Herbert C. Brown and Georg Wittig

"for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1978

Peter D. Mitchell

"for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1977

Ilya Prigogine

"for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1976

William N. Lipscomb

"for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1975

John Warcup Cornforth

"for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions"

Vladimir Prelog

"for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1974

Paul J. Flory

"for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1973

Ernst Otto Fischer and Geoffrey Wilkinson

"for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972

Christian B. Anfinsen

"for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"

Stanford Moore and William H. Stein

"for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1971

Gerhard Herzberg

"for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1970

Luis F. Leloir

"for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1969

Derek H. R. Barton and Odd Hassel

"for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1968

Lars Onsager

"for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967

Manfred Eigen, Ronald George Wreyford Norrish and George Porter

"for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1966

Robert S. Mulliken

"for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1965

Robert Burns Woodward

"for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1964

Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin

"for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1963

Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta

"for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1962

Max Ferdinand Perutz and John Cowdery Kendrew

"for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1961

Melvin Calvin

"for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1960

Willard Frank Libby

"for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1959

Jaroslav Heyrovsky

"for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1958

Frederick Sanger

"for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1957

Lord (Alexander R.) Todd

"for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956

Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood and Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov

"for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1955

Vincent du Vigneaud

"for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1954

Linus Carl Pauling

"for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1953

Hermann Staudinger

"for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951

Edwin Mattison McMillan and Glenn Theodore Seaborg

"for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1950

Otto Paul Hermann Diels and Kurt Alder

"for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1949

William Francis Giauque

"for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1948

Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius

"for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1947

Sir Robert Robinson

"for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946

James Batcheller Sumner

"for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized"

John Howard Northrop and Wendell Meredith Stanley

"for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1945

Artturi Ilmari Virtanen

"for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1944

Otto Hahn

"for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1943

George de Hevesy

"for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1941

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1940

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1939

Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt

"for his work on sex hormones"

Leopold Ruzicka

"for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1938

Richard Kuhn

"for his work on carotenoids and vitamins"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1937

Walter Norman Haworth

"for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C"

Paul Karrer

"for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1936

Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye

"for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1935

Frédéric Joliot and Irène Joliot-Curie

"in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1934

Harold Clayton Urey

"for his discovery of heavy hydrogen"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1933

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1932

Irving Langmuir

"for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931

Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius

"in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1930

Hans Fischer

"for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1929

Arthur Harden and Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin

"for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1928

Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus

"for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1927

Heinrich Otto Wieland

"for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1926

The (Theodor) Svedberg

"for his work on disperse systems"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1925

Richard Adolf Zsigmondy

"for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1924

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1923

Fritz Pregl

"for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1922

Francis William Aston

"for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1921

Frederick Soddy

"for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1920

Walther Hermann Nernst

"in recognition of his work in thermochemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1919

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1918

Fritz Haber

"for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1917

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1916

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1915

Richard Martin Willstätter

"for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1914

Theodore William Richards

"in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1913

Alfred Werner

"in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1912

Victor Grignard

"for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry"

Paul Sabatier

"for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent years"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1911

Marie Curie, née Sklodowska

"in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1910

Otto Wallach

"in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1909

Wilhelm Ostwald

"in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908

Ernest Rutherford

"for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1907

Eduard Buchner

"for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1906

Henri Moissan

"in recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace called after him"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1905

Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer

"in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1904

Sir William Ramsay

"in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1903

Svante August Arrhenius

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1902

Hermann Emil Fischer

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1901

Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions"

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