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Lists of Nobel Prizes and Laureates

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Collage: Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, Henry Taube, Ernest Rutherford, Ada E. Yonath and Otto Wallach

All Nobel Prizes in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded 105 times to 166 Nobel Laureates between 1901 and 2013. Frederick Sanger is the only Nobel Laureate who has been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry twice, in 1958 and 1980. This means that a total of 165 individuals have received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Click on the links to get more information.

Martin Karplus thumb picture
Michael Levitt thumb picture
Arieh Warshel thumb picture
Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel

"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"

Robert J. Lefkowitz thumb picture
Brian K. Kobilka thumb picture
Robert J. Lefkowitz and Brian K. Kobilka

"for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"

Dan Shechtman thumb picture
Dan Shechtman

"for the discovery of quasicrystals"

Richard F. Heck thumb picture
Ei-ichi Negishi thumb picture
Akira Suzuki thumb picture
Richard F. Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi and Akira Suzuki

"for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis"

Venkatraman Ramakrishnan thumb picture
Thomas A. Steitz thumb picture
Ada E. Yonath thumb picture
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A. Steitz and Ada E. Yonath

"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"

Osamu Shimomura thumb picture
Martin Chalfie thumb picture
Roger Y. Tsien thumb picture
Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Y. Tsien

"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"

Gerhard Ertl thumb picture
Gerhard Ertl

"for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces"

Roger D. Kornberg thumb picture
Roger D. Kornberg

"for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"

Yves Chauvin thumb picture
Robert H. Grubbs thumb picture
Richard R. Schrock thumb picture
Yves Chauvin, Robert H. Grubbs and Richard R. Schrock

"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"

Aaron Ciechanover thumb picture
Avram Hershko thumb picture
Irwin Rose thumb picture
Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose

"for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003

"for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes"

Peter Agre thumb picture
Peter Agre

"for the discovery of water channels"

Roderick MacKinnon thumb picture
Roderick MacKinnon

"for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002

"for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules"

John B. Fenn thumb picture
Koichi Tanaka thumb picture
John B. Fenn and Koichi Tanaka

"for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules"

Kurt Wüthrich thumb picture
Kurt Wüthrich

"for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution"

William S. Knowles thumb picture
Ryoji Noyori thumb picture
William S. Knowles and Ryoji Noyori

"for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions"

K. Barry Sharpless thumb picture
K. Barry Sharpless

"for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions"

Alan J. Heeger thumb picture
Alan G. MacDiarmid thumb picture
Hideki Shirakawa thumb picture
Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa

"for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"

Ahmed H. Zewail thumb picture
Ahmed H. Zewail

"for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy"

Walter Kohn thumb picture
Walter Kohn

"for his development of the density-functional theory"

John A. Pople thumb picture
John A. Pople

"for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry"

Paul D. Boyer thumb picture
John E. Walker thumb picture
Paul D. Boyer and John E. Walker

"for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"

Jens C. Skou thumb picture
Jens C. Skou

"for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase"

Paul J. Crutzen thumb picture
Mario J. Molina thumb picture
F. Sherwood Rowland thumb picture
Paul J. Crutzen, Mario J. Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland

"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"

George A. Olah thumb picture
George A. Olah

"for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993

"for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry"

Kary B. Mullis thumb picture
Kary B. Mullis

"for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method"

Michael Smith thumb picture
Michael Smith

"for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies"

Rudolph A. Marcus thumb picture
Rudolph A. Marcus

"for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"

Richard R. Ernst thumb picture
Richard R. Ernst

"for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy"

Elias James Corey thumb picture
Elias James Corey

"for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis"

Sidney Altman thumb picture
Thomas R. Cech thumb picture
Sidney Altman and Thomas R. Cech

"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"

Johann Deisenhofer thumb picture
Robert Huber thumb picture
Hartmut Michel thumb picture
Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber and Hartmut Michel

"for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"

Donald J. Cram thumb picture
Jean-Marie Lehn thumb picture
Charles J. Pedersen thumb picture
Donald J. Cram, Jean-Marie Lehn and Charles J. Pedersen

"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"

Dudley R. Herschbach thumb picture
Yuan T. Lee thumb picture
John C. Polanyi thumb picture
Dudley R. Herschbach, Yuan T. Lee and John C. Polanyi

"for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"

Herbert A. Hauptman thumb picture
Jerome Karle thumb picture
Herbert A. Hauptman and Jerome Karle

"for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"

Robert Bruce Merrifield thumb picture
Robert Bruce Merrifield

"for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix"

Henry Taube thumb picture
Henry Taube

"for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes"

Aaron Klug thumb picture
Aaron Klug

"for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes"

Kenichi Fukui thumb picture
Roald Hoffmann thumb picture
Kenichi Fukui and Roald Hoffmann

"for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"

Paul Berg thumb picture
Paul Berg

"for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"

Walter Gilbert thumb picture
Frederick Sanger thumb picture
Walter Gilbert and Frederick Sanger

"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"

Herbert C. Brown thumb picture
Georg Wittig thumb picture
Herbert C. Brown and Georg Wittig

"for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"

Peter D. Mitchell thumb picture
Peter D. Mitchell

"for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory"

Ilya Prigogine thumb picture
Ilya Prigogine

"for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"

William N. Lipscomb thumb picture
William N. Lipscomb

"for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding"

John Warcup Cornforth thumb picture
John Warcup Cornforth

"for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions"

Vladimir Prelog thumb picture
Vladimir Prelog

"for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions"

Paul J. Flory thumb picture
Paul J. Flory

"for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules"

Ernst Otto Fischer thumb picture
Geoffrey Wilkinson thumb picture
Ernst Otto Fischer and Geoffrey Wilkinson

"for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds"

Christian B. Anfinsen thumb picture
Christian B. Anfinsen

"for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"

Stanford Moore thumb picture
William H. Stein thumb picture
Stanford Moore and William H. Stein

"for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"

Gerhard Herzberg thumb picture
Gerhard Herzberg

"for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals"

Luis F. Leloir thumb picture
Luis F. Leloir

"for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"

Derek H. R. Barton thumb picture
Odd Hassel thumb picture
Derek H. R. Barton and Odd Hassel

"for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"

Lars Onsager thumb picture
Lars Onsager

"for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes"

Manfred Eigen thumb picture
Ronald George Wreyford Norrish thumb picture
George Porter thumb picture
Manfred Eigen, Ronald George Wreyford Norrish and George Porter

"for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"

Robert S. Mulliken thumb picture
Robert S. Mulliken

"for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method"

Robert Burns Woodward thumb picture
Robert Burns Woodward

"for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis"

Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin thumb picture
Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin

"for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"

Karl Ziegler thumb picture
Giulio Natta thumb picture
Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta

"for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers"

Max Ferdinand Perutz thumb picture
John Cowdery Kendrew thumb picture
Max Ferdinand Perutz and John Cowdery Kendrew

"for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"

Melvin Calvin thumb picture
Melvin Calvin

"for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"

Willard Frank Libby thumb picture
Willard Frank Libby

"for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science"

Jaroslav Heyrovsky thumb picture
Jaroslav Heyrovsky

"for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis"

Frederick Sanger thumb picture
Frederick Sanger

"for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin"

Lord (Alexander R.) Todd thumb picture
Lord (Alexander R.) Todd

"for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes"

Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood thumb picture
Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov thumb picture
Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood and Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov

"for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions"

Vincent du Vigneaud thumb picture
Vincent du Vigneaud

"for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone"

Linus Carl Pauling thumb picture
Linus Carl Pauling

"for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances"

Hermann Staudinger thumb picture
Hermann Staudinger

"for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry"

Edwin Mattison McMillan thumb picture
Glenn Theodore Seaborg thumb picture
Edwin Mattison McMillan and Glenn Theodore Seaborg

"for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements"

Otto Paul Hermann Diels thumb picture
Kurt Alder thumb picture
Otto Paul Hermann Diels and Kurt Alder

"for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis"

William Francis Giauque thumb picture
William Francis Giauque

"for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures"

Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius thumb picture
Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius

"for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins"

Sir Robert Robinson thumb picture
Sir Robert Robinson

"for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids"

James Batcheller Sumner thumb picture
James Batcheller Sumner

"for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized"

John Howard Northrop thumb picture
Wendell Meredith Stanley thumb picture
John Howard Northrop and Wendell Meredith Stanley

"for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"

Artturi Ilmari Virtanen thumb picture
Artturi Ilmari Virtanen

"for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method"

Otto Hahn thumb picture
Otto Hahn

"for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei"

George de Hevesy thumb picture
George de Hevesy

"for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1941

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1940

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt thumb picture
Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt

"for his work on sex hormones"

Leopold Ruzicka thumb picture
Leopold Ruzicka

"for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes"

Richard Kuhn thumb picture
Richard Kuhn

"for his work on carotenoids and vitamins"

Walter Norman Haworth thumb picture
Walter Norman Haworth

"for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C"

Paul Karrer thumb picture
Paul Karrer

"for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2"

Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye thumb picture
Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye

"for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases"

Frédéric Joliot thumb picture
Irène Joliot-Curie thumb picture
Frédéric Joliot and Irène Joliot-Curie

"in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements"

Harold Clayton Urey thumb picture
Harold Clayton Urey

"for his discovery of heavy hydrogen"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1933

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

Irving Langmuir thumb picture
Irving Langmuir

"for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry"

Carl Bosch thumb picture
Friedrich Bergius thumb picture
Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius

"in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"

Hans Fischer thumb picture
Hans Fischer

"for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin"

Arthur Harden thumb picture
Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin thumb picture
Arthur Harden and Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin

"for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"

Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus thumb picture
Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus

"for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins"

Heinrich Otto Wieland thumb picture
Heinrich Otto Wieland

"for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances"

The (Theodor) Svedberg thumb picture
The (Theodor) Svedberg

"for his work on disperse systems"

Richard Adolf Zsigmondy thumb picture
Richard Adolf Zsigmondy

"for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1924

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

Fritz Pregl thumb picture
Fritz Pregl

"for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances"

Francis William Aston thumb picture
Francis William Aston

"for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule"

Frederick Soddy thumb picture
Frederick Soddy

"for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes"

Walther Hermann Nernst thumb picture
Walther Hermann Nernst

"in recognition of his work in thermochemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1919

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

Fritz Haber thumb picture
Fritz Haber

"for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1917

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1916

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

Richard Martin Willstätter thumb picture
Richard Martin Willstätter

"for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"

Theodore William Richards thumb picture
Theodore William Richards

"in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements"

Alfred Werner thumb picture
Alfred Werner

"in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry"

Victor Grignard thumb picture
Victor Grignard

"for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry"

Paul Sabatier thumb picture
Paul Sabatier

"for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent years"

Marie Curie, née Sklodowska thumb picture
Marie Curie, née Sklodowska

"in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element"

Otto Wallach thumb picture
Otto Wallach

"in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"

Wilhelm Ostwald thumb picture
Wilhelm Ostwald

"in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction"

Ernest Rutherford thumb picture
Ernest Rutherford

"for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances"

Eduard Buchner thumb picture
Eduard Buchner

"for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation"

Henri Moissan thumb picture
Henri Moissan

"in recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace called after him"

Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer thumb picture
Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer

"in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"

Sir William Ramsay thumb picture
Sir William Ramsay

"in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system"

Svante August Arrhenius thumb picture
Svante August Arrhenius

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation"

Hermann Emil Fischer thumb picture
Hermann Emil Fischer

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses"

Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff thumb picture
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff

"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions"

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