Born: 29 January 1926, Jhang Maghiāna, India (now Pakistan)
Died: 21 November 1996, Oxford, United Kingdom
Affiliation at the time of the award: International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom
Prize motivation: "for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"
Field: particle physics
Prize share: 1/3
According to modern physics, there are four fundamental forces in nature. Electromagnetic interaction is one of these. The weak interaction, responsible for e.g. the beta-decay of nuclei is another. With theoretical contributions by Abdus Salam, Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg in 1968, these two interactions were unified to one single, called electroweak. The theory envisaged e.g. so called weak neutral currents in certain interactions of elementary particles, an effect later confirmed in experiments.