Kieselguhr, a diatomaceous earth (diatomite) is a form of silica composed of the siliceous shells of unicellular aquatic plants of microscopic size. Kieselguhr is heat resistant and has been used as an insulator, as a component in toothpaste and as an abrasive in metal polishes. In the chemical industry, it is also used as a filter to clarify syrups and sugar and as a filling material in paper, paints, ceramics, soap and detergents.
Fifteen laureates have been awarded this year, for achievements that have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind.
Their work and discoveries range from how cells adapt to changes in levels of oxygen to our ability to fight global poverty.
See them all presented here.