Paul Hermann Müller
Born: 12 January 1899, Olten, Switzerland
Died: 12 October 1965, Basel, Switzerland
Affiliation at the time of the award: Laboratorium der Farben-Fabriken J.R. Geigy A.G. (Laboratory of the J.R. Geigy Dye-Factory Co.), Basel, Switzerland
Prize motivation: "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods"
Field: chemistry, disease transmission, toxicology
Prize share: 1/1
Several serious diseases are spread by insects. For example, malaria is spread by mosquitoes. Typhus fever is spread by lice in clothing, and epidemics have broken out when hygiene is neglected, particularly in connection with wars. In 1942 Paul Müller discovered that the substance DDT was effective in killing insects. With the aid of DDT, people could curb the spread of malaria and halt an epidemic of typhus. It would turn out, however, that DDT had serious after effects. It became concentrated in the food chain and injured other animals and people.
"for his work on typhus"
"for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it"
"in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases"