Chamberlain was nominated for his contribution to the Munich Agreement (September 30, 1938). The agreement accepted Hitler's claim that Czechoslovakia had to cede the Sudetenland to Germany. It was seen as a successful attempt to prevent the outbreak of a general war in Europe.
Neville Chamberlain was son of the statesman Joseph Chamberlain and younger half brother of Sir Austen Chamberlain. The latter received the Nobel Peace Prize for 1925.
In Munich, Chamberlain and the French Prime Minister Daladier gave in to Hiler's demands. Czechoslovakia was sacrificed, but the British and French ministers hoped that the result would be peace in Europe. One year later World War II started.