Suttner was the author of the novel "Die Waffen nieder" (Lay Down Your Arms), the most important antiwar novel of the period. She was the founder and president of the Austrian Peace Society (1891), and she contributed to the foundation of the Permanent International Peace Bureau (1891). Suttner was nominated for her contribution to the international peace movement.
D'Estournelles represented France at The Hague Peace Conference in 1899. He attempted to get acceptance for the principle of compulsory arbitration, but this was not possible. After the conference he strongly promoted the Permanent Court of Arbitration, and he founded the French Groupe de l'Arbitrage in 1903. D'Estournelles advocated Franco-German conciliation and wanted a European federation.