Andrew V. Schally
Born: 30 November 1926, Wilno (now Vilnius), Poland (now Lithuania)
Affiliation at the time of the award: Veterans Administration Hospital, New Orleans, LA, USA
Prize motivation: "for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"
Field: biochemistry, endocrinology, metabolism
Prize share: 1/4
Hormones are substances that convey signals between different parts of the body and regulate their functions. Around the pituitary in the brain, releasing hormones serve to release other hormones and are formed around the pituitary gland. The releasing hormones occur in very small amounts. From large quantities of pig brains and lamb brains respectively, Andrew Schally and Roger Guillemin separately extracted a sufficient amount of releasing hormone to determine its structure in 1969. They subsequently were able to produce it with chemical methods.
"for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones"
"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"
"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"