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Nobel Prizes and Laureates

Nobel Prizes and Laureates

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006
Andrew Z. Fire, Craig C. Mello

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Andrew Z. Fire - Facts

Andrew Z. Fire

Andrew Z. Fire

Born: 27 April 1959, Stanford, CA, USA

Affiliation at the time of the award: Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA

Prize motivation: "for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"

Field: genetics, molecular biology

Prize share: 1/2

Work

RNA has multiple functions. Among these, "messenger RNA" carries genetic information from DNA to protein formation. RNA is often a single-stranded spiral, but also exists in double-stranded form. In 1998, Andrew Fire and Craig Mello discovered through their studies of the roundworm C. elegans a phenomenon dubbed "RNA interference". In this phenomenon, double-stranded RNA blocks messenger RNA so that certain genetic information is not converted during protein formation. This "silences" these genes, i.e. renders them inactive. The phenomenon plays an important regulatory role within a genome.

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