The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1939 was divided equally between Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt "for his work on sex hormones" and Leopold Ruzicka "for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes."Adolf Butenandt was caused by the authorities of his country to decline the award but he later received the diploma and the medal.
See the list of all Nobel Prizes, awarded for "the greatest benefit to mankind."
In his will, Alfred Nobel left 31 million SEK to found the Nobel Prizes.
Medicine Laureate Shinya Yamanaka talks about the importance of taking risks.