The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1985
Born: 18 June 1918, New York, NY, USA
Died: 6 June 2013
Affiliation at the time of the award: US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA
Prize motivation: "for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures."
Prize share: 1/2
When mapping the molecular structure of molecules, it is important to study how X-rays, electromagnetic waves with a short wavelength, are bent by a crystal. What is important is the ray's direction, intensity and phase - how the wave crests are displaced. During the first part of the 1950s, Jerome Karle and Herbert Hauptman developed a system of equations that used measurements of the rays' intensity to determine their phases. This made direct determination of molecular structures possible.
Their work and discoveries range from how cells adapt to changes in levels of oxygen to our ability to fight global poverty.
See them all presented here.