Photo from the Nobel Foundation archive.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1985
Born: 18 June 1918, New York, NY, USA
Died: 6 June 2013
Affiliation at the time of the award: US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA
Prize motivation: "for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures."
Prize share: 1/2
When mapping the molecular structure of molecules, it is important to study how X-rays, electromagnetic waves with a short wavelength, are bent by a crystal. What is important is the ray's direction, intensity and phase - how the wave crests are displaced. During the first part of the 1950s, Jerome Karle and Herbert Hauptman developed a system of equations that used measurements of the rays' intensity to determine their phases. This made direct determination of molecular structures possible.