John F. Nash Jr.
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1994
Born: 13 June 1928, Bluefield, WV, USA
Died: 23 May 2015, New Jersey, NJ, USA
Affiliation at the time of the award: Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA
Prize motivation: "for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games."
Contribution: Introduced the distinction between cooperative games, in which binding agreements can be made, and non-cooperative games, where binding agreements are not feasible. Developed an equilibrium concept for non-cooperative games that now is called Nash equilibrium.
Prize share: 1/3
Their work and discoveries range from the formation of black holes and genetic scissors to efforts to combat hunger and develop new auction formats.
See them all presented here.