|Nomination for Nobel Peace Prize|
|Number:||35 - 2|
|Name:||The Permanent International Peace Bureau|
|Profession:||Central office for coordination of peace activities|
|Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1910|
|Name:||William Randal Cremer|
|Profession:||Member of parliament. Secretary of the International Arbitration League. Co-founder of the Inter-Parliamentary Union.|
|Country:||UNITED KINGDOM (GB)|
|Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1903|
|Profession:||Pioneer peace worker. Organizer of peace societies and congresses. Co-founder of the Inter-Parliamentary Union.|
|Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize 1901|
|Motivation:||The Peace Bureau organized peace conferences, and it collected and published peace literature. It was the heart of the European peace movement, and it co-ordinated the activities of the various national and non-governmental peace organizations. Cremer established the International Arbitration League in 1870. He initiated an arbitration treaty between Great Britain and the USA. Cremer organized and promoted inter-parliamentary peace conferences, and he was editor of the journal "The Arbitrator". He was the only labor leader in the peace movement. Cremer was also one of the founders of the Inter-Parliamentary Union. Passy's career as a peace worker began in 1856 with his opposition to the Crimean War. In 1867 he founded the first French peace society (Ligue internationale et permanente de la paix). Passy promoted free trade, pacifism, international law and arbitration. As a member of parliament (1881-1889), Passy also contributed to the founding of the Inter-Parliamentary Union.|
|Name:||37 members of the Swedish parliament (Wavrinsky)|
|Profession:||Members of parliament|
|Comments:||The nominators suggested that half the prize would go to the Permanent International Peace Bureau, and the other half would be equally divided between Cremer and Passy.|
Thirteen laureates were awarded a Nobel Prize in 2021, for achievements that have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind.
Their work and discoveries range from the Earth’s climate and our sense of touch to efforts to safeguard freedom of expression.
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