Murray Gell-Mann


Murray Gell-Mann

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Murray Gell-Mann
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1969

Born: 15 September 1929, New York, NY, USA

Died: 24 May 2019, Santa Fe, NM, USA

Affiliation at the time of the award: California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Pasadena, CA, USA

Prize motivation: “for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions”

Prize share: 1/1


During the 1950s and 1960s, new accelerators and apparatuses helped identify many new elementary particles. In theoretical works from the same period, Murray Gell-Mann classified particles and their interactions. He proposed that observed particles are in fact composite, that is, comprised of smaller building blocks called quarks. According to this theory, as-yet-undiscovered particles should exist. When these were later found in experiments, the theory was accepted.

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MLA style: Murray Gell-Mann – Facts. Nobel Prize Outreach AB 2023. Sun. 3 Dec 2023. <>

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