1086 First description of a compass in China by Shen Kuo in the book Meng Xi Bi Tan.
1857 Lord Kelvin discovers magnetoresistance.
1902 Nobel Prize awarded to Hendrik Lorentz and Pieter Zeeman “in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena.”
1925 Samuel Goudsmit and George Uhlenbeck propose that electrons have an inherent degree of freedom, spin.
1970 Nobel Prize awarded to Louis Néel “for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics”.
1977 Nobel Prize awarded to Philip Anderson, Nevill Mott and John van Vleck “for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems.”
1994 Nobel Prize awarded to Bertram Brockhouse and Clifford Shull “for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter.”
Their work and discoveries range from how cells adapt to changes in levels of oxygen to our ability to fight global poverty.
See them all presented here.