The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1939 was awarded to Gerhard Domagk "for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil."Gerhard Domagk was caused by the authorities of his country to decline the award but he later received the diploma and the medal.
See the list of all Nobel Prizes, awarded for "the greatest benefit to mankind."
In his will, Alfred Nobel left 31 million SEK to found the Nobel Prizes.
Medicine Laureate Shinya Yamanaka talks about the importance of taking risks.