Jerome I. Friedman and Henry W. Kendall
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA
Richard E. Taylor
Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), CA, USA
for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model
in particle physics
Their work and discoveries range from how cells adapt to changes in levels of oxygen to our ability to fight global poverty.
See them all presented here.