Daniel C. Tsui
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998
Born: 28 February 1939, Henan, China
Affiliation at the time of the award: Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA
Prize motivation: "for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations."
Prize share: 1/3
The Hall effect refers to the fact that if an electrical current flows lengthwise through a metal band and a magnetic field is placed against the surface of the band at a right angle, a charge arises diagonally in the band. In interfaces in certain materials a quantum Hall effect occurs. Klaus von Klitzing discovered that changes in the magnetic field result in changes in what is known as Hall conductance that vary in steps of whole-number multiples of a constant. Subsequently, Daniel Tsui and Horst Störmer discovered in 1982 that there also are steps that represent fractions of the constant.