Gerardus 't Hooft
The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999
Born: 5 July 1946, Den Helder, the Netherlands
Affiliation at the time of the award: Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands
Prize motivation: "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics."
Prize share: 1/2
According to modern physics, four fundamental forces exist in nature. Electromagnetic interaction is one of these. The weak interaction - responsible, for example, for the beta decay of nuclei - is another. In the 1960s, a unified theory was formulated for these two forces: the electroweak interaction. However, certain problems still remained to be solved. In the early 1970s, Gerardus t'Hooft and Martinus Veltman formulated and tested a mathematical theory that further explained the electroweak interaction.